Cases of colonialism and mass migration whose goal was to provide safe haven and/or a place of refuge for some persecuted group(s)?

Futurist

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May 2014
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SoCal
Which cases of colonialism and mass migration were there whose goal was to provide safe haven and/or a place of refuge for some persecuted group(s)? So far, I can think of:

-The mass migration of various English minority religious groups to North America in the colonial era. For instance, the Puritans to Massachusetts, the English Catholics to Maryland, the Quakers to Pennsylvania, et cetera.
-The mass migration of Mormons from the eastern US (especially Illinois) to Utah Territory in the 1840s in response to their persecution in the eastern US.
-The Zionist movement in regards to creating a Jewish state in Palestine (with alternate locations for a Jewish state previously being considered and rejected) so that persecuted Jews would actually have a place to go to.
-The Back-to-Africa movement attempting--and failing--to get large numbers of blacks in the US and perhaps other parts of the Americas as well to move to Sub-Saharan Africa in order to escape persecution in the US and/or elsewhere in the Americas.

Anyway, what additional examples of this have there been? For the record, I'm well-aware of cases of refugees moving to other countries--for instance, the Huguenots moving to other parts of Europe after Louis XIV expelled them in 1685 or millions of Eastern European Jews moving to the West in order to escape persecution. However, what I am really looking for is an organized movement to get large numbers of members of persecuted groups to settle somewhere and to create a particular territory as a type of safe haven and/or homeland for them. The US was willing to receive a huge number of Russian Jews, but AFAIK it was never actually US policy to actively attract Russian Jews to the US and to create a type of homeland for them here. In other words, if they would have come to the US, great, but if not, that would have also been OK.

What are your own thoughts on this? Indeed, which examples of this am I forgetting to list here?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
23,340
SoCal
Also, for what it's worth, I'm well-aware of efforts to create homelands for various peoples, ethnic groups, and religious groups. For instance, the creation of Pakistan as a safe haven for British India's Muslim population. However, I don't think that this would really count for this since AFAIK there was no organized effort to get most or all Muslims in (largely Hindu) India to move to Pakistan after independence. Indeed, most Indian Muslims actually stayed behind in India after independence.
 

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,954
Republika Srpska
The Soviets established the Jewish Autonomous Oblast within Russia in order to allow the Jews to live freely and to practice socialism while also being a buffer zone, but the Jews never moved in great numbers there.
 
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Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
23,340
SoCal
The Soviets established the Jewish Autonomous Oblast within Russia in order to allow the Jews to live freely and to practice socialism while also being a buffer zone, but the Jews never moved in great numbers there.
That's actually an excellent example of this! FWIW, AFAIK, the Jewish population of the JAO actually peaked at around 25% in the late 1940s but subsequently massively declined:




FWIW, Yuri Andropov flirted with the idea of creating an autonomous region for the Germans in Central Asia in the 1970s (the Soviet Germans were previously deported there en masse by Stalin in 1941) but this proposal was never actually implemented:


Anyway, do you know of any other/additional examples of this?
 
Jul 2019
159
Pale Blue Dot - Moonshine Quadrant
Which cases of colonialism and mass migration were there whose goal was to provide safe haven and/or a place of refuge for some persecuted group(s)? So far, I can think of:

-The mass migration of various English minority religious groups to North America in the colonial era. For instance, the Puritans to Massachusetts, the English Catholics to Maryland, the Quakers to Pennsylvania, et cetera.
-The mass migration of Mormons from the eastern US (especially Illinois) to Utah Territory in the 1840s in response to their persecution in the eastern US.
-The Zionist movement in regards to creating a Jewish state in Palestine (with alternate locations for a Jewish state previously being considered and rejected) so that persecuted Jews would actually have a place to go to.
-The Back-to-Africa movement attempting--and failing--to get large numbers of blacks in the US and perhaps other parts of the Americas as well to move to Sub-Saharan Africa in order to escape persecution in the US and/or elsewhere in the Americas.

Anyway, what additional examples of this have there been? For the record, I'm well-aware of cases of refugees moving to other countries--for instance, the Huguenots moving to other parts of Europe after Louis XIV expelled them in 1685 or millions of Eastern European Jews moving to the West in order to escape persecution. However, what I am really looking for is an organized movement to get large numbers of members of persecuted groups to settle somewhere and to create a particular territory as a type of safe haven and/or homeland for them. The US was willing to receive a huge number of Russian Jews, but AFAIK it was never actually US policy to actively attract Russian Jews to the US and to create a type of homeland for them here. In other words, if they would have come to the US, great, but if not, that would have also been OK.

What are your own thoughts on this? Indeed, which examples of this am I forgetting to list here?
Persecution does not really fit in most of what follows but I think safe haven does. Per Wikipedia, large-scale immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States began after the First and Second Opium Wars. The Qing dynasty had major problems and British policies certainly did not help.

Since over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants we can conclude that there were serious problems at home.

Irish immigration was often driven by the Irish Potato Famine which was less persecution than an overwhelmed social system but British Penal Laws that preceded the famine had already triggered immigration.

Italian emigration was fueled by a brutal poverty. Life in Southern Italy, including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, offered landless peasants little more than hardship, exploitation, and violence.

Most of the immigrations into America were economically driven. I doubt that economic stupidity in the home country counts as persecution (although maybe it should) but again safe haven seems to fit. Similar motivations probably underlie more recent immigrations from Central America too – although economic opportunity in the U.S. today is obviously not what it was in earlier eras.
 
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Futurist

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May 2014
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Yes, I'm well-aware of all of these cases. I guess that my issue with these examples is that these immigrants didn't actually try to create a specifically ethnic safe haven. I mean, Yes, millions of Irish, Germans, et cetera moved to the US, but AFAIK they never actually aimed to establish a large territory (or really any territory) where they themselves would be able to govern themselves and decide their own affairs. Rather, they largely melted into the general American population. In contrast, AFAIK, Puritans, Catholics, Quakers, et cetera in colonial America initially married largely among themselves and sought to create territories and communities of their own. Ditto for Mormons--for instance, Utah and other parts of the interior Western US still retain an extremely heavy Mormon flavor even right now, over 150 years after this mass Mormon migration. Ditto for the Zionist movement--where the Jews in Palestine have largely intermarried among themselves (including patrilineal Jews).
 
Jul 2019
1,048
New Jersey
The Huguenots came over to America twice: once under Coligny (his colonies of France Antarctique and Fort Caroline), which didn't end well, and then again during the reign of Louis XIV, when he renewed the persecutions against the Huguenots. New Rochelle, NY, for example, was named for La Rochelle, the French Huguenot stronghold.
 
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Futurist

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May 2014
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Very interesting! Of course, all of them didn't settle in one compact place or territory in the Americas, did they?
 
Jul 2019
1,048
New Jersey
Very interesting! Of course, all of them didn't settle in one compact place or territory in the Americas, did they?
Their main concentration was in NY-NJ area, but there were also substantial numbers in the Carolinas, Philadelphia, and Rhode Island.
 
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