Chinese history from 1911-1949. with changes of territorial controls

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Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
4,861
Florania
These maps demonstrate the actual control of the ROC rather than the nominal control, and it was
largest during its foundation (although largely nominal):


The map states Tibet declared independence in April 1912; then, the fact was that Tibet was very
similar to the failed state of Somalia from 1912-1952, and the ROC still claimed nominal control of Tibet.

These maps demonstrate that Kuomintang never established full control of China AT ALL.
Why the Kuomintang never established full control of China?
Should we call this era "China's lost 38 years?" We know that the industrial capacity of the ROC was much
lower than the Qing Dynasty.
 
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Apr 2014
208
New York, U.S.
These maps demonstrate the actual control of the ROC rather than the nominal control, and it was
largest during its foundation (although largely nominal):


The map states Tibet declared independence in April 1912; then, the fact was that Tibet was very
similar to the failed state of Somalia from 1912-1952, and the ROC still claimed nominal control of Tibet.

These maps demonstrate that Kuomintang never established full control of China AT ALL.
Why the Kuomintang never established full control of China?
Should we call this era "China's lost 38 years?" We know that the industrial capacity of the ROC was much
lower than the Qing Dynasty.
Please go to Wikipedia and search for “Kuomintang”. There is an excellent article that will answer your questions.
 

VHS

Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
4,861
Florania
Please go to Wikipedia and search for “Kuomintang”. There is an excellent article that will answer your questions.
The wikipedia article doesn't mention why the actual control of Kuomintang was hardly larger than Ming Dynasty at its height.
Nationalist China never controlled the full area of its claim (which includes Mongolia and extra territories in Xinjiang and Yunnan in theory), and we call such "territory of delusion"(地图开疆)
It is beyond doubt that the PRC has actual control over its territories, which the Nationalist China lacked.
 
May 2019
371
Earth
Why the Kuomintang never established full control of China?
This had something to do with it: Warlord Era - Wikipedia

Even after the Northern Expedition, KMT control in many areas was only nominal, since some warlords who went over to the KMT were allowed to retain control of their possessions in exchange for nominally submitting to the central government. This meant that, even after 1928, there were provinces in China that were ruled by highly autonomous former warlords who could pretty much do what they wanted locally. Examples of post-Northern Expedition warlord rebellions/conflicts include the Central Plains War, the Han-Liu War, and the War in Ningxia:


As you can see, these conflicts were continuing into the early 1930s, causing instability in the regions they affected, and made it harder for the KMT to effectively govern them. By that time, Japan was already moving into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, which meant that by 1932 the KMT had lost control over the Northeast:


The Inner Mongolians, lead by princes like Demchugdongrub, were pushing for autonomy within China in an effort to stop Han colonisation of their lands and abuses of their people by regional warlords, but when the KMT failed to protect their interests, they went over to the Japanese camp:


So, a combination of warlord unrest, Japanese intervention, and ethnic minority unrest meant that the KMT was never able to establish full control over all the regions it claimed.
 
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Jul 2014
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Much as a I like KMT ideology I find the gross incompetence of KMT and Chiang responsible for hellhole that China was in the post Qing China. KMT lost Outer Mongolia and Tibet And would have lost Xinjiang to Soviet Russia. Without the communists China would have been like Syria even after the defeat of the imperial japan. Multiple power centers and outright ethnic armies plus foreign interference in KMT China would have doomed China to perpetual civil wars.
 
Sep 2019
486
Slovenia
@hyuzu i agree with you but would like to add two important things. Most of the Chinese industry was in Manchuria and it was ruled first by pro-Japanese warlord and then occupied by Japan.

Plus of course totalitarian communism had it centers in Xinjiang and Jiangxi creating big problems.
 

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Ad Honorem
Dec 2015
4,861
Florania
This had something to do with it: Warlord Era - Wikipedia

Even after the Northern Expedition, KMT control in many areas was only nominal, since some warlords who went over to the KMT were allowed to retain control of their possessions in exchange for nominally submitting to the central government. This meant that, even after 1928, there were provinces in China that were ruled by highly autonomous former warlords who could pretty much do what they wanted locally. Examples of post-Northern Expedition warlord rebellions/conflicts include the Central Plains War, the Han-Liu War, and the War in Ningxia:


As you can see, these conflicts were continuing into the early 1930s, causing instability in the regions they affected, and made it harder for the KMT to effectively govern them. By that time, Japan was already moving into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, which meant that by 1932 the KMT had lost control over the Northeast:


The Inner Mongolians, lead by princes like Demchugdongrub, were pushing for autonomy within China in an effort to stop Han colonisation of their lands and abuses of their people by regional warlords, but when the KMT failed to protect their interests, they went over to the Japanese camp:


So, a combination of warlord unrest, Japanese intervention, and ethnic minority unrest meant that the KMT was never able to establish full control over all the regions it claimed.
The fact is that the "Golden Decade" was not that golden after all. Why would you
Let's contrast the Nationalist (Kuomintang) Northern Expedition with the subsequent Communist takeover; the Chinese Communist Party managed
to take over most of the claimed territories (including Tibet, Xinjiang and the Northwest) by 1959.
In comparison of this "claim" by the ROC, Mongolia and parts of Xinjiang, Tibet, and Yunnan were lost.
The omnialtas demonstrate the actual control of Kuomintang all too well.



Steven Pinker is NOT a professional historian; then, his researches reveal:
The Long Peace. Since 1945 there has been zero use of nuclear weapons, zero combat between the Cold War superpowers, just one war between great powers (US and China in Korea, ending 1953), zero wars in western Europe (there used to be two new wars a year there, for 600 years), and zero wars between developed countries or expansion of their borders by conquest. (Note that the takeover of Crimea was an exceptional case.)

With the significant decline of importance of territories, countries today are more interested in securing their current borders rather than seizing more territories.
(This has been the observation of Yuval Noah Harari, who is a professional historian by trade.)
 
Sep 2019
486
Slovenia
In fact you had also marxists inside KMT but contrary to Chinese communist party they thought China passed its feudal period and it is currently in the stagnation period. So socialist revolution should wait until situation changes socio-economical level.