Christopher Columbus Galician

Jan 2014
44
poio
Celtiberians was the border area between the Celtic and Iberian sides in the middle of Spain. but some Celtic and Iberian frontiers could be considered as Celtiberians that could be one of those boundaries with southern Portugal, but it could be a way of referring to the entire Iberian peninsula because Celts and Iberians predominated, and the north of Portugal was Celtic galaic. is a slightly ambiguous definition. He can refer to someone from the south of Portugal or someone who was half Portuguese and half Castilian.
I put you two documents of Colones and Sotomayor in Pontevedra, also I put a link with the book of Constantine of Horta and Pardo ""La verdadera cuna de Cristobal Colón". As a curiosity , quoted on page 28, Al archbishop of Santiago sending to Pontevedra 15000 maravedíes, who carries the money is called Nicolas Oderigo genoese


IMG_20190220_144522_AO_HDR.jpg


this is the document of the fifteenth century, where Bertolomé Colon appears, as a sailor.





This is a document of the year 1434, that speaks of the purchase of payo Gómez de Sotomayor, of properties up to the house of Domingo Colón.

I still have to go to question 4 and 5.
 
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Jan 2014
44
poio
Before I get to question 4 and 5, I leave the three sources on the ship Santa Maria.


Written for Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo together to Bartolomé de las Casas have been the first two historians of the Indias. he write, Historia general y natural de las Indias: Part 1 (1535) , chapter 5, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés

"allí principió su camino con tres carabelas; la una e mayor dellas llamada la Gallega (Galician); y las otras dos eran de aquella villa de Palos, e fueron bastecidas y armadas de todo lo nescesario. "

"Destas tres carabelas era capitana la Gallega, en la cual iba la persona de Colom; de las otras dos, la una se llamaba la Pinta, de que iba por capitán Martín Alonso Pinzón; y la otra se decía la Niña, e iba por capitán della Francisco Martín Pinzón, con el cual iba Vicente Yáñez Pinzón. "

Celso Garcia de la riega in his book "La Gallega, Nao Capitana", mentions this phrase from Oviedo:

"La Gallega"; "de las tres naves era la capitana La Gallega en la que iba la persona de Colón"; "Se llamo La Gallega dedicada a Santa Maria"; "Y a la entrada del Puerto Real tocó tierra la nao capitana llamada La Gallega e abriose."; E fiço hacer un castillo cuadrado a manera de palenque con la madera de la caravela capitana La Gallega".

He says the Santa maría was called also the Galician. The boats used to have two names, the main and the other, referring to a saint.

Celso Garcia de la riega in his book "La Gallega, Nao Capitana", mentions this sentence of Martín Sarmiento, page 58:

"El Padre Sarmiento, que jamás hizo afirmación alguna que no fuera resultado de estudios concienzudos y de noticias ó datos seguros, dice que es verosímil que la carabela La Gallega se hubiese labrado en los astilleros de Pontevedra, esto es, en el Arrabal ó Pescadería de la villa y que fuese dedicada á Santa María la Grande, «que es la parroquia de todos los marineros en parroquia separada, de cuya manera el ilustre sabio vino á corroborar estas palabras del historiador Fernández de Oviedo, ya copiadas; «Se llamó La Gallega, dedicada á Santa María.»"

He says also: "Era costumbre en aquella época, y siguió siéndolo por mucho tiempo, según los señores Alcalá Galiano y Capmani, dar á los buques dos nombres, uno el vulgar con que comúnmente se les designaba, y otro por devoción á algún santo ó santa en el acto de bendecirlas; la carabela La Niña se llamaba legalmente Santa Clara, y el de La Gallega era sin duda alguna el nombre vulgar de la Santa María,"

"La nave Santa Maria llevaba el segundo nombre de La Gallega a consecuencia de haber sido construida en un puerto tan importante de la costa de Galicia, de la misma manera que, según el Sr. Asensio en su libro "Cristóbal Colón", a la carabela Santa Cruz construida en 1496 en la Isabela (Isla Española) vulgarmente dieron en llamar La India, por haberse allí construido."

The Niña was called Santa Clara, and La Gallega was called Santa María.

In the second trip there was a ship called the Gallega, and also in the fourth trip, the last and most personal, of the four ships, a ship was called the Gallega.


Let’s go to the documents of Pontevedra, Page 68 of Celso García de la Riega’s book, "La Gallega, Nao Capitana" on this page looks better and more summarized http://www.cristobal-colon.com/la-gallega/

«por ende en nom do «dito a° vaasqs po el e po vertude da dta «carta de pder Afreto de vos ferna cervyño «besiño da dta villa o boso nabio | q deus salue q dise por nom sta m (Santa María) «o q 1 agora esta a o porto da pont da dta «villa de pontvedra pa q plasendo a deus « o d ° a ° vaasqs ¡ carrege o d ° navio de sal «en o prto da dta villa de a veiro | pa a dta «villa de pontvedra ou pa a villa de pdron.

Como a o porto de mor (Bayona de Mignor?)
e ende pousar ancla
«e estar dous dias siguentes e en estos dtos
«dous dias o d° a° vs deue dar deuysa (di-
«visa) se o dto navio yra descarregar o dto
«sal en dta villa de pontevedra (ou) se yra
«descarregar a a dta villa de pdron |
e do dia q o dto navio la g (ininteligible: ¿la
Gallega?) arribare a cada huna das dtas villas
a a sua descarrega ata oyto dias o di-
«to nabio deue ser descargado do





On that page appears a freight contract of 1489, on the page 69, we can see the initials "sta m", which we assume, refers to the Santa María, Later, we have the second name ship that is illegible but you see the first G. because we assume it’s the Santa María, because the witnesses to the contract are men who were in the Santa María. page 71, de foronda and Ruiz García (Ruiz García was of Santoña as Juan de la Cosa, The co-owner of the ship) .

ts (testigos) Ruy gs (Gotierrez) carpentero f o

lops (Fernando Lopez) alfayate | (Carcomido el

papel en la esquina inferior, pero viéndose

trazos superiores de letras) «de foroda e gc

Rujs m rs e outros


In another naval contract at Pontevedra, the name of Juan de la Cosa appears:

Presenciaron el acto de contrato como testigos: «juan ferrs
águlla not° e juan de la cª e lopo montenegro
mos (moradores) de pontvedra e outros.



https://uvadoc.uva.es/bitstream/10324/24797/1/TFG-N.%20768.pdf, Here we can see Foronda as a witness at Bobadilla’s trial. page 24. Ruiz García as sailor of Santoña, crew of Santa María.


 
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Jan 2014
44
poio
To add something more to the previous post, before the second trip, we have this document of the Catholic kings, is in the archive of the Indies of Seville:

Muy bien fué la parte de la náo — dicen los reyes — que compras te y si allá en las islas hobiere de quedar, pagúese al dueño della lo que falta y la otra de GALICIA, ya nos escribieron como la tenía el contador Valera".

that ship that bought colon must be the same of the memorial, when Antonio Torres returned to Castilla and called the Galician on January 30, 1494, Colón says:

"Lo que vos Antonio Torres, capitán de la Marigalante… Direis a sus Altezas que a causa de excusar alguna más costa, yo merqué estas caravelas que llevas por memorial para retenerlas acá, con estas dos naos, conviene a saber, la Gallega y esa otra Capitana…"




Let's begin with the question 4

4. Source for Pedro Madruga being a corsair or corsair activities;

Let’s start with the most important, a part is already answered with Palencia’s account, but there is more.
I disagree with you about the Admiral, Admiral was a unique title, the first admiral was in the capture of Seville, Ramón Bonifaz, where he also helped Payo Gomez Charino de Sotomayor.
Thus began, the theory of Pedro Madruga. Alfonso Phillipot defender of the Galician theory, he was very impressed that Columbus said that I am not the only admiral of my family. Admirals in Castile have been very few. In Galicia the only family that could have admirals were the Sotomayors.
For that reason, he fixed himself on the Sotomayor in the time, the sotomayor was Pedro Madruga. the main source he used was "Vasco da Ponte", 15th century historian and who knew Pedro Madruga, and served a rival of him, Andrade (almost everything we know about Pedro Madruga is thanks to Vasco da Ponte).



Almirante de Castilla - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
http://www.armada.mde.es/archivo/mardigitalrevistas/cuadernosihcn/14cuaderno/01cap.pdf

Alfonso Paez from Sotomayor is missing in the wikipedia, but he is in the Navy magazine, the other link, from page 12, by order are, the number 6 Paio Gomez Charino, number 10, Alfonso Paez de Sotomayor, number 17 Jofre de Tenorio married to Sotomayor and lord of Moguer (On the wikipedia link, appears as lord of Moguer)



año 1476

letter of Pedro of Mendaña to Don Alfonso V On the battle of Toro


..Outros sy sabe bem vossa Alteza em como me mandastes hir a Galiza e em ella
ganhei quatro fortalezas com suas terras e Vossa Senhoria mas mandou entregar
e dar ao Conde de Caminha sen me faser satisfaçao por ello e sem me mandar
pagar os danos e gastos que pellas tomar fis....




pedro de mandaña complains to the king of Portugal, that he conquered four fortresses in Galicia for his orders, and had to deliver them to Pedro Madruga and he did not receive reward.
In this letter you can see the favourable treatment of the king of Portugal to pedro Madruga.


Rui de Pina chronicle of how Pedro Madruga saves the life of King Alfonso V, it is an ancient Portuguese:

"....El Rey D. Affonso , vendo fua Bandeira no chao , e sua batalha desbaratada , se quizera lançar no meio dos inimigos , para allí acabar a vida,onde cuidava que se lhe acabava a honra , desejoso de achar quem o matasse.

Mas Gomez de Miranda Prior de S. Marcos em Caftella , que despois foi Bispo de Lamego , e Pedro Alvarez de Soto maior Conde de Caminha , que sempre na
peleja o acompanharao , e outros Cavalleiros , lho nao confentirao , e por conselho delies fe retrahio para Touro.


E por ser já de noite , reçeando el Rey , e os que o acompanhavao , que se fosse
accometter a Ponte para entrar na Cidade , que poderiaö achar alguma companhia dos inimigos , de que recebessem dano , se desviaraö do caminho , e se forao a Castro Nuño..."



The chronicle says, that King Alfonso V, seeing his flag on the ground, and the lost battle, he threw himself suicidally against his enemies. The Prior of San Marcos, the Bishop of Lamego, and Pedro Alvarez of Sotomayor, who always accompanied him,it says. they did not leave him and took him to the fortress of Castro Nuño.





This is the document where it talks about Michel de Nicola, called Michelote.
. I have the entire transcript in a book

1477 august 9. Medina del Campo

Real Provisión contra Michel de Nicola e Iñigo de Larrea, como principales culpables del asesinato de la tripulación de un buque inglés, y contra el teniente del preboste y carcelero de la villa de Orio, Martín de Irigoyen, por haber puesto en libertad al primero.

Archivo General de Guipúzcoa (Tolosa): Secc. 3ª, neg. 9, leg. 1.

RECALDE, A. y ORELLA, J. L.:actual documentation to the province of Guipúzcoa. century XV, Eusko Ikaskuntza, San Sebastián, 1988, t. I, pp. 193-196 .



In the text we can read this piece:

E dis que asy fecho e cometido el qrimen tan malo e feo, los dichos Michel e Inigo
en uno con los otros dos sus companneros nabegando pasaron en el Regno de Gallizia e fizieron su partido con Pero Alvares de Soto Mayor que sea en deserviçio myo, e despacharon ende en çiertos puertos e lugares della toda la ropa e joyas que en el dicho navyo venya en uno con el dicho navyo

He speaks of a Michelote’s pirate attack on an English ship and the assassination of his crew. The Catholics kings ask for their capture and return of the loot.
Michelote contacts Pedro Madruga and hides the loot in his fief. Michelote was nephew of the pirate Guillaume Cazenove




document of a corsair attack carried out by Pedro Madruga to neighbors of San Vicente de la Barquera and the kings demand 150000 marvels for damages. I have the entire transcript in a book.
MINISTERIO DE CULTURA Y DEPORTE - Portal de Archivos Españoles, you have to write "Pedro Ruiz Conejero", about the seeker.

13 / 03 /1476 ( VALLADOLID )

Carta a los justicias del Reino, a petición de Pedro Ruiz Conejero y de otros vecinos de San Vicente de la Barquera, para que donde quiera se hallaren bienes de Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor o de vasallos suyos, que hagan represalias por valor de 150.000 maravedís que valía lo que les fue robado por éstos.




source:

PORTAL ARCHIVOS ESPAÑOLES
(( ES.47161.AGS/2.2.10.8//RGS,LEG,147603,153 ))






Another sourceAlfredo Basante de la Riva, :

«q viera desafiar al dhó Jua Gógalez padre del dhó Fernán González a gfa gonzalez de cosióporq era en favor del duque del ynfantazgo e q fuera a Santander por su persona en seruicio del dhó señor Rey don enrriq nfo hermano cotra el dho duq del ynfantazgo. E q asy mismo savia q dhó Jua González fuera en nfo seruicio por capitán de una nao cotra colon e contra el Rey de Portugal o fuera asy mismo en nfo seruicio a vayona de uia cotra Pero Alvarez de Sotomayor e como onbre fijodaigo e honrrado e la dexara tomada».


They appear in the same piece of text, the pirate Colon and Pedro Madruga. It says juan Gonzalez went with a Nao against the pirate Colon and the king of Portugal or Bayonne against Pedro Alvarez of Sotomayor.


I still have to look for something of the naval attack of Pedro Madruga to a tower of archbishop of Santiago, or the kinship with many nobles of Portugal, already said Vasco da Ponte that it was a lot of time in Portugal.

tomorrow I start with the answer 5, of documents where, it can see that pedro Madruga could still live after 1486
 
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Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,116
Portugal
Poio,

I am smashed by your posts. I am reading them all. I will comment (probably not all the items) when I can, for now I am just still analysing all that info and doing some readings in the provided links. Nevertheless thanks for the detailed answer, and for some useful links here that you are posting. I usually don’t’ give much credits to blogs, but you are posting here some academic sources that I didn’t knew/noticed that they were available online.
 
Jan 2014
44
poio
It’s not easy, I’ve put in many posts, and it takes time to analyze them well, I would be late very much in answering. The most important thing is to enjoy sources and information and draw conclusions.
I still want to go to the most intriguing, and most entertaining part. Question 5, was dead Pedro Madruga or was hidden by Catholic kings, who were interested in the secret information that Pedro Madruga the he has of Portugal.

Many Portuguese historians, such as Manuel de la Rosa,(and I think the they are right). They think Portugal knew America before Colon' trip and that Colon was a spy under Juan II.

if the Castilians go to America they will not disturb in the African territories of Portugal and above all, after the two plots of the main Portuguese nobility in 1484 and 1485, which many Portuguese nobles escaped to Moguer (including Columbus), Cordoba, Seville and Lopo de Alburquerque to England. Later, Catholic kings also knew the existence of America before 1492 (a question of the public prosecutor in the Colombian lawsuits proves it, I think it’s question 12, after I transcribe it to you).


first, let’s start with question 5.
5.Documents that he is alive… after his dead


You have to realize, that the only count of Caminha that has ever existed, was Pedro Madruga, was a title given to him by King Alfonso V. His son tried to maintain the title of Count de Caminha, but he was not recognized by Portugal. His son was killed in 1495 in a riot where Pedro Madruga is mentioned (Columbus was in America at the time).

In 1506, the year of Colon' death, the same year that Christopher Columbus helped the son of Pedro Madruga to become a cardinal and then a commentator,
but Unfortunately, I can’t find the document, it hasn’t been scanned, Gaspar Massó quotes it in his book. I leave you a link to almost all of Pedro Madruga’s documents found,
on the Spanish Historical Archives page, Count of Camiña (it is better to order it by dates, not all are of Pedro Madruga):




This Royal Cédula was issued in Salamanca on January 15, 1506,

Real Cédula sobre la petición de Don Pedro Álvarez de Sotomayor, conde de
Camiña, de 30.000 maravedís de juro de heredad que le habían sido dejados por declaratorios.

is quoted in the work, by Gaspar Massó in his book, Pedro Madruga de Sotomayor in 1975, two years before the theory. Pedro Madruga-Colón.

I found a document of a corsair attack by Pedro early to a ship of Naples, and they demand of their son Alvaro of Sotomayor a reward Mandamiento a D. Alvaro de Sotomayor para que paguen a Juan y a Merino del Aguila, vecinos de Nápoles, la pena en que fué condenado D. Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor, conde de Camiña, su padre, por haberles tomado una nao con mercancías, junto a Pontevedra..


The bishop of Tuy,Diego Muros, in his testament also remembers to Pedro MAdruga, testament of Diego Muros, page 243, the testaments says:

En su Testamento (el obispo Diego de Muros) mandó à la Sta. Iglesia de Tuy cien mil mrs. de los setecientos mil que le
debia el Conde de Camiña: previniendo que no entregaran al Conde la fortaleza de fornelos mientras no entregase a la
Catedral de Tuy la cantidad que la dexaba mandada, como refiere Sandoval.


He could refer to his son, Alvaro de Sotomayor, who retained the title of Count de Camiña when he could not be it.
I know that it’s in the same book but I can’t find it, it’ll be in the second part of the book. Rodrigo cota mentions it in his book and says:


16 de Octubre del 1488 confirió el Cabildo una
Canongía á D. Alfonso hermano de D. Alvaro Sarmiento,
Conde de Camina, y este concedió al
Cabildo quanto el Rey, y su Padre le habían sacado.


He is saying that Alvaro de Sotomayor (confuses Sotomayor for Sarmiento), gives to the Cabildo of Tuy, in the name of the king, all that his father took from him, in 1488. His brother Alfonso goes in his name. Alvaro de Sotomayor could not have been, he had already paid the debt.

which is the story of the 700000 marvels? Diego de Muros (I) | Real Academia de la Historia

The bishop of Tuy suffered a great nightmare with Pedro Madruga,he suffered two kidnappings, despite being friend of Catholic kings and their protege.
was first kidnapped by the Portuguese, by the war of succession, then Pedro Madruga took the city of Tuy which had belonged to the Sotomayor
(Pedro Madruga was destined to be bishop of Tuy, even King Henry IV asked him to be archbishop of Santiago),
also took the city of Bayona, for a long time, he received 150000 maravedíes, to the year for the lands of Bayona.
The problem is that Bayona belonged to the kings, and who was in charge was the bishop of Tuy, Diego Muros.
Diego de muros was Oidor royal in the Chancillería of Valladolid and ambassador to Rome.
The fleet of Leon de Guevara recovers Bayona for the kings. The remaining possessions must be returned to them little by little.
The kings proclaim general peace, and even Pedro Madruga collaborates with the kings, for that the archbishop of Santiago opens the door of Santiago.
Anyway, Diego Muros wants revenge. Pedro Madruga weakened is hidden in Portugal for safety.
but the few remaining soldiers and fortresses resist in his name, including his best man payo Veloso (he was the first person to receive Alonso Pinzón
after arriving from America on his first trip, was Governor of Bayona).
Diego de muros attacked in 1482, the fortress of Fornelos, with 2000 soldiers,
accompanied by small nobility of Pontevedra, Bayonne and surroundings.
But as soon as the attack began, two shots of thorns killed two of the main nobles,
who were brothers and the battle was over, a total disaster for Diego Muros. The nobles abandon him.
In 1485 Pedro Madruga took revenge, he sent payo Veloso for the bishop. The historian Payo Veloso was a direct witness to the event.
They took the bishop by the beard and dragged him, burned his house, and carried him naked on top of a donkey to Fornelos.
the bishop will lose a lot of kilos and will lose almost all teeth in torture.
The bishop is freed after paying 700000 maravedíes, a huge amount of money for the time.
the money is paid in the fief of the Count of Villarreal, the most powerful Portuguese noble of the north of Portugal and relative of Pedro Madruga.
When this happens, kings lose all patience, and take away everything to Pedro Madruga and their son to betrayal takes away the castle of Sotomayor in the name of Catholic kings.
That’s when Peter goes to make a will in reflojos (Portugal) and goes to look for Catholic kings and sponsored by the Duke of Alba.
It is known that Pedro gave him a share, never got to pay him all the money he had to pay for that kidnapping.



Of the documents where it is said that Pedro Madruga is dead, there is one a little ambiguous, document of 1494. RGS,LEG,149405,265 - Incitativa a los alcaldes mayores de Galicia, a petición de Rodrigo Alonso, clérigo de la iglesia de Santa Cristina, que es en el obispado de Tuy, en defensa de su beneficio porque Pedro Álvarez de Sotomayor, 'cuyo diz que era el dicho logar', ya difunto, tomaba sus rentas.


Iniciativa a los alcaldes mayores de Galicia, a petición de Rodrigo Alonso,
clérigo de la iglesia de Santa Cristina, que es en el obispado
de Tuy, en defensa de su beneficio porque Pedro Álvarez de Sotomayor,
cuyo diz que era el dicho logar”, ya difunto, tomaba sus rentas.


The quotes are not mine, they come in the original document, He says that he is dead but At the same time he says he owned those lands and took their rents. Pedro Madruga still had the properties of the bishop of Tuy, when they belonged to the bishop. The document is rare enough.



 
Jan 2014
44
poio
Pedro Madrgar, is also mentioned in the book bibliographic curiosities, where a jester of the court of carlos V, which they called Francesillo de Zuñiga (the zuñigas was the most direct family to Peter, it is said that his mother was Constanza de Zuñiga and her aunt Teresa de Zuñiga).
Teresa de Zuñiga killed by her servants at the end of the irmandinha revolt. Pedro Madruga takes revenge Cutting heads and feet To the persons of village of Clodio. The village priest is undresses for him and rides him on a Mule while he beats him. The day ends, cutting off the head of lord of Sarmiento ,when he finds a messenger of the archbishop of santiago, with a letter asking him to kill Peter.
this 16th century jester seems to say indirectly that Columbus and Madruga are the same person (This proof is found by Rodrigo Cota in the 21st century.)


Curiosidades Bibliográficas 1855, page 42, Chronicle of the 16th century:


Iba también con su majestad monsieur de Laxao, e contábale como don Diego de Sotomayor é el clavero de Alcántara e Rodrigo Manrique
no tenían justicia para pedirle la encomienda mayor de la dicha orden, que él era aficionado a ser de ella, y más si le daban la encomienda mayor.
Decíale también que don Diego de Sotomayor parecía hijo bastardo de Colón el almirante de Indias, é solicitador de la mejorada; que parecía heredero del
ladrón que desesperó, porque siempre estaba haciendo gestos con los ojos (…)


Colon not being able to make Cardinal Alvaro de Sotomayor, wants to give him a commendation. the story says ironically, that he looks like the bastard son of Columbus and that he looked like the son also of a thief who despaired (it was as they called Peter, after falling into disgrace.). The irony is that instead of saying that he is the son of the thief who despaired, he says that he looked and at the same time he looked like a bastard son of colon.



remember what Columbus says, in the book of copiador, on 4 March of the year 1493:


"Tanbién la Iglesia de Dios deve de entender en esto: a probeer de perlados y
devotos y savios religiosos; y porque la cosa es tan grande y de tal calidad
qu'es razón que provea el Sancto Padre de perlados que sean muy fuera de
cubdiçia de bienes temporales, y muy propios al serviçio de Dios y de V. Al.,
y por tanto a ella suplico que, en la carta que escriva d'esta victoria, que le

demanden UN CARDENALGO PARA MI HIJO .."


we know that the son to whom he refers cannot be, Hernando Colón or Diego Colón (one was too young and the other was going to be the future admiral),
In addition, This statement continues this way::



" puesto que no sea en hedad idónea, se le dé, que de POCA DIFERENÇIA ay en
el tiempo d'él y del hijo del Ofiçio de Médizis de Florençia,a quien se dio a quien
se dio el capelo sin que aya servido ni tenga propósito de tanta honra de la
christiandad;


besides, he says there’s not much difference between the age of his son and the son of the oficio of Medici, must refer to the son of Lorenzo de Medici, Giovanni de Lorenzo de Medici. that was Pope Leon X, Giovanni was declared cardinal on 9 March 1492. Giovanni was born in 1475 And he says later the document:

"y que me faga merçed de la carta d'esto, porque YO LO EMBIÉ A PROCURAR"

That is, his son must have been one of the procurers of the Catholic kings when Alexander VI was elected pope. And that year the Catholic kings pay the son of Pedro Madruga, Alvaro of Sotomayor 12000 marvels for clothing.


[año 1490]: - pago de 9400 mrs de nómina

- [año 1491]: - pago de 9400 mrs de nómina

- [año 1492]: - pago de 9400 mrs de nómina

- [año 1492]: - 12.000 mrs.para su vistuario

- [05/09/1493]: "Cédula a Diego de Sotomayor, paje del principe, 12.000 mrs.
de merced para su vistuario".

- [año 1494 ]: - pago de 9400 mrs de nómina


These are the payments of the Catholic kings, in their accounts to Alvaro of Sotomayor, those years.

in the book Historia de Córdoba",Dtor Morales y Padilla, año 1620 , Tomo II – Folio 434, Cap. 35 (I can’t find the book online), appears a son of Columbus who does not appear in the official history:


"Paso por la ciudad de Córdova; fue recevido de los cavalleros de aquella ciudad, como era razon,
llevando descubiertas las cosas particulares que de las Indias traia. Con mayor contento le recibio
doña Teresa Enríquez de Harana, su mujer, señora natural de Cordova, y sus hijos don Diego, don Cristóbal y don Hernando.
Con ellos camino la via de Barcelona”


Here he speaks of three sons of colums. Pedro Madruga had a son named Cristobal, friend of the sons of Columbus, who was the most important man in America after Diego Colón.

In the city he founded, in the history of the city he appears twice under the name of Christopher Colón of Sotomayor. It cannot be a chance.http://aguada.gov.pr/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/HISTORIA-DE-AGUADA.pdf page 12-13


the coat of arms of the Aguada seems a homage to Colon, and the shield of Puerto Rico is very similar to the coat of arms.








coat of arms of Puerto Rico and Poio​







One last detail Columbus also punished, putting people naked on a mule.


This is the punishment to Inés de Malaver.

(…) mandó el almirante que la azotaran y la pasearan desnuda encima de un asno por las calles de la Isabela (...)
Another source:

Yten, dize que mandó açotar una muger ençima de un asno desnuda en cueros en la Isabela (…)



This is the punishment to Montoya:

(…) e por aquello mandó el Almirante que le atasen las manos atrás con una soga a la garganta, desnudo en camisa, e lo llevaron dos leguas de noche atado (…)












 
Jan 2014
44
poio
thanks for the video, I know the Portuguese Colombo theories. Portugal was the great kingdom of the moment, had the best boats, Lisbon was the most important port in the world, had the best cartographers and navigators, And of course, that colon learned from the Portuguese.
It is also clear, the friendship that Columbus had with the most important characters of the Portuguese nobility.

besides, there are two documents that cite him as Portuguese, one is a payment to an anonymous person who is supposed to be him and then a payment, I think of 50000 marvels to a Portuguese admiral by Catholic kings. Toscanelli thought he was Portuguese too, but the reality is that Colón was Pedro Madruga, which could be considered half Spanish and half Portuguese, so he wrote a mixture of Spanish with Galaico-Portuguese.


1551615294462.png

of Colombo’s theory of Alentejo, I am not clear because this Symbol means Salvador Fernandez Zarco the great explorer.

The main evidence of the Portuguese Columbus is this signature, the name of Cuba when in reality the name given by Columbus is Cibao, the geographical names, friendships with nobles, two documents that said he was Portuguese, the Pope’s letter with his name in Portuguese.

But there is still something missing from the Portuguese Columbus, strong evidence that leaves no doubt.

one of the best forums for learning about the Portuguese Colon is Portal de Genealogia | Geneall.net, and participates Manuel de la Rosa, one of the historians who has best destroyed the genoese theory with good arguments, and protagonist of 4 identities of Colómbo,

but in this forum it has also been spoken that the Portuguese theory lacks evidence, like the evidence of a jester of the court of Charles V, who says that Columbus and Madruga are the same person.


what evidence I have contributed, in this post and still have more that I have not put (I have put, true documents of the fifteenth and sixteenth century):

  1. In the 15th century, more of 90% of people with the surname Colón lived in Pontevedra.
  2. The ship of Cristobal Colón, the Santa María was also called La Gallega and was built in Pontevedra. On the first trip, the second trip and on the fourth trip, the most personal, there were three boats called La Gallega (Galician). The Catholic kings before the second voyage speak of a ship that Columbus had bought in Galicia.
  3. Direct relatives of Columbus living in Pontevedra and above all, the same, Duke of Veragua selling a property that belonged to Domingo Colón.
  4. I need to put, the geographical places that Colón put in America that are equal to places near Pontevedra and show that the language of Colón was closer to Galician than to Portuguese, I will put it another day.
  5. You know it can’t be a coincidence, Surname Colón in Pontevedra, vessel Santa Maria built in Pontevedra, direct descendants of Colón in Pontevedra, the Duke of Veragua selling a Domingo Colón property in Pontevedra. From the same city where there was already a legend for centuries that Columbus was born there.
  6. Columbus said he wasn’t the only admiral in his family. The only noble Galician family that had admirals in Castile were the Sotomayors, who were from Pontevedra and had boats in that city.

  7. The lord of Sotomayor in the time of Colón/Colombus was Pedro Madruga. and the lives of Colón and Sotomayor coincide.
  8. I have proved, that the first day that Columbus saw the Catholic kings was the first day that probably Pedro Madruga was also with them, both sponsored by the Duke of Alba.
  9. I have shown that Pedro Madruga did not die in 1486 after seeing the Catholic kings. I have shown documents where the Bishop of Muros mentions them in 1491 and the same year that Colón is going to die there is a letter from him, sent to Galicia.
  10. I have shown that when Columbus asks to make cardinal his son, he truly refers to the son of Pedro Madruga Diego de Sotomayor. Columbus, in the year of his death 1506, directly assists Diego de Sotomayor to become a cardinal, and since he does not succeed, he tries to give him Encomiendas.
  11. I have shown that Colón had another son called Cristobal. Pedro Madruga had a son called Cristobal who was a friend of the sons of Colón (he even gave a book to Hernando Columbus and Hernando Colón was one of the witnesses, to make diego of Sotomayor knight of the order of Alcántara).
  12. Cristobal de Sotomayor was the most important man in America after diego Colón.
  13. There are two sources that call him Cristobal Colón of Sotomayor. the first the historiography of the city that he founded "la Aguada" and the other source is the mayor of Puerto Rico at that time.
  14. Diego de Sotomayor was one of Prince Juan’s most important servants. The names of the sons of Colon and diego of Sotomayor appear together in a book, on the same page, about the servants of the prince.
  15. I have shown that Pedro Madruga was one of the most important allies of Alfonso V, king of Portugal and saved his life in the battle of Toro.
  16. Columbus was at the battle of Cabo San Vicente with the pirate guillaume Cazenove coullon and says he was related to the corsarios coullon. Pedro Madruga Also he was a corsair of Portugal.
    Pedro Madruga and Guillaume Cazenove were Portugal’s main foreign allies in the north. Guillaume was in Galicia when Pedro Madruga defends Pontevedra and that there were Portuguese galleys to help Pedro Madruga, on dates near that naval battle.

  17. Guillaume Cazenove’s nephew had contacts with Pedro Madruga.
  18. Pedro Madruga had the same relatives of Colón and many people who helped Colón were related to Pedro Madruga. Pedro Madruga’s wife was Felipa Moniz’s cousin.
  19. The first person in Castile to learn of the discovery of America is the most important man of Pedro Madruga, payo Veloso. and the first mediator that Colón has in Lisbon is Martín de Noronha, a relative of Colón and Pedro Madruga.
  20. and especially and the icing on the cake, a jester of the court of the emperor Charles V, called Francesillo de Zuñiga (Zuñiga was the family closest to the Sotomayor), says that they are the same person.
Anyway Pedro Madruga was more Portuguese than Spanish, and all he knew and got was thanks to Portugal and was a Portuguese nobleman more, besides during the treaty of Alcacovas, Pontevedra belonged to Portugal for some years., It could be said that Pedro Madruga was Portuguese for some years. For this reason, an enemy of Catholic kings, payo Beloso, was the governor of Bayonne, a city of Catholic kings. city that had to belong to the bishop of Tuy, friend of the kings.
 
Last edited:

LatinoEuropa

Ad Honorem
Oct 2015
5,222
Matosinhos Portugal
The nationality of Columbus is very dubious.

Spain always wanted to stay is Portugal's front with the history of the Discoveries.

As Portuguese I say we know who was the first.


Spain has a great history with the Discoveries, but you can say thank you Portugal as other nations England Netherlands France.


How would the world today be without Portugal.
Was the first. But Spain Castile never accepted, still today does not accept that Portugal as a country is older than Spain.
Telling the truth does not cost. What it costs is to accept.
 

LatinoEuropa

Ad Honorem
Oct 2015
5,222
Matosinhos Portugal
Was Columbus Portuguese? The answer may be in a 500 year old DNA

Researchers at the University of Coimbra and Instituto Superior Técnico want to prove that Christopher Columbus was, in fact, Portuguese privateer Pedro Ataíde

The mystery of Christopher Columbus' nationality can finally be unraveled, thanks to a 500-year DNA sample. A team of researchers from the University of Coimbra and the Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon wants to put an end to the doubts and, for this, will develop DNA analyzes of a person believed to have familiar links with the browser.

The most consensual theory is that Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, but there are several experts who point out that the person responsible for the discovery of America may originate in Catalonia, Galicia or even Portugal.

Also contributing to the increase of the doubts was Fernando Colombo, son of Cristóvão Colombo, since, in his biography, did not reveal the origin of the father, leaving the scientific community in turmoil.

he Portuguese investigators want to prove that the navigator was Portuguese and that, in addition, its real name was Pedro Ataíde, a Portuguese corsair of century XV.

This thesis was developed by Professor Fernando Branco, from Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa, in a book published in 2012, entitled "Christopher Columbus, Noble Portuguese", in which the author points out over half a hundred coincidences between the life of the navigator and that of Pedro Ataíde.

Ataíde was given as dead in the naval battle of the Cape of San Vicente, in 1473, where it fought next to a French corsair called Culon. According to Fernando Branco's thesis, Pedro Ataíde was able to save himself and swim to the Algarve coast. There he decided to change his name to Pedro Colombo (or Colun), for security reasons, since Ataíde's family was persecuted in Portugal for having participated in a scheme to kill King D. João II.


There is a set of indications that his real name is Pedro Colombo. He never wrote his name as Christopher Columbus. Signed as an admiral or with an encrypted signature, in which you can read several things, among them 'Pedro Colombro

The biography of Columbus states that the navigator arrived in Portugal in 1476, swimming, after a shipwreck, which reinforces this thesis that will now be put to the test.

To prove the theory that Christopher Columbus was, in fact, the Portuguese Pedro Ataíde, the group of researchers of the two universities will analyze DNA extracted from the bones of a right cousin of Ataíde and compare it with the DNA of the son of Columbus, who was already analyzed and sequenced in Spain in 2006.

I'm almost certain that his name was Pedro Colombo. It is not necessary to prove if there is a relation with Pedro Ataíde ", adds the researcher of Instituto Superior Técnico.

This analysis will only be possible if the bones of Ataíde's cousin are in good condition, which, for the moment, is not known, because the tomb has not yet been opened. Portuguese researchers hope to be able to do so after summer, when they think they will get the necessary permits, which have been requested for several years.


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In my opinion the name Cristovão Colombo, was invented by someone, is nothing more than a myth.
It was time to know 100% your true nationality.
Of what to say he is Portuguese he is Spanish is Genoese.
So we will never get a true answer. About your nationality.