Chronology of the colonial goods - 2

Nov 2019
116
Maykop
4. The Aztecs considered cocoa as a gift of Quetzalcoatl, and Quetzalcoatl was Hernan Cortes. Perhaps, it’s better to summarize all facts in a table.

Deity: Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl
The conquistador: Hernan Cortes Ketsalkoatl

Deity: the Source: American Indian chronicles
The conquistador: the Source: American Indian and Spanish chronicles

Deity: arrived in the year of Cē Ācatl (Cane)
The conquistador: arrived in the year of Cē Ācatl (Cane)

Deity: arrived by sea, from the east
The conquistador: arrived by sea, from the east

Deity: tall, white-skinned, bearded
The conquistador: tall, white-skinned, bearded

Deity: wore not American Indian metal helmet
The conquistador: wore not American Indian metal helmet

Deity: conquered the capital - Tenōchtitlan
The conquistador: conquered the capital - Tenōchtitlan

Deity: was expelled from the capital by conspirators
The conquistador: was expelled from the capital by conspirators

Deity: came back and brought the power back
The conquistador: came back and brought the power back

Deity: conquered all the Maya territory
The conquistador: conquered all the Maya territory

Deity: taught monogamy
The conquistador: taught Christian monogamy

Deity: forbade human sacrifices
The conquistador: forbade human sacrifices

Deity: presented a calendar and marked the doomsday date
The conquistador: presented the European calendar and marked "Apocalypse"

Deity: all reforms were made during his life
The conquistador: all reforms were made during his life

Deity: bore a name of Nakshitl - Four-footed
The conquistador: had a general for horsemen nickname - Four-footed

Deity: around his epoch the Maya city became empty
The conquistador: during time of his reign 95 % of the population of Mexico died because of smallpox

Deity: departured on a raft made from snakes to the east
The conquistador: departured by the ship made from boards to the east

Deity: sailed from Mexico as an elderly person
The conquistador: sailed from Mexico to Spain at the age of 55

Deity: promised to return to Mexico personally
The conquistador: had full opportunity to return personally

Deity: ruled 19 years
The conquistador: ruled 19 years (1521-1540)

Deity: a real historical figure
The conquistador: a real historical figure

Deity: idolised as Ketsalkoatl
The conquistador: idolised as Ketsalkoatl

Deity: In Chichén-Itzá there was a holiday of enemies three times
The conquistador: Cortes invaded Mēxihcah three times

Deity: Chichén-Itzá - a reservoir of Itzá people
The conquistador: Mēxihcah was on a lake

5. Cocoa-beans were used as payment means, and it is a standard European work scheme in colonies: the population was laid under tribute with nature product which had maximum value in Europe. Therefore, in Cuzco they paid their tithe with coca, in India with opium, and in Mexico City - cocoa beans.
6. Iquitos - the native land of the cocoa progenitor - was founded by Jesuits in 1757. Here in 1864 “the rubber fever” began, and the heart of all that process was the same - thoughtful selection work, huge investments and super-profits as a result. It not the American Indian work organization.

That will do. Among counterarguments, we have found the only one: somewhere have found a fossil pot with traces of two alkaloids, and one of them was theobromine. Neither pre-European plantations, nor pre-European warehouses for cocoa, nor pre-European dishes for cocoa were found. We can see pictures from the Vatican library, but no dishes in the museum - only modern, Europeanized. After all, considering ostensibly ritual drinking tradition, such dishes - with integral ethnic colour - should be in every house.




Already in 1525, 4 years after Cortes's invading Mexico, Criollo cocoa was imported to Tobago. That put the well-known history of invading Mexico under question. And in 1530 German company Welser got engaged in cocoa cultivation. How Welser got in touch with Cortes was not reported.
In 1784 cocoa was already not a secret any longer, but was not imported neither to Jamaica, nor to West India yet, and it is indeed a historical problem.
In 1810 encyclopaedia Britannica had no information about Mexican cocoa, deliveries were made from the South America.
The first chocolate factory was founded in 1819, soon after invention of the technology of cocoa-powder dissolution. The epoch date seams to be 1819, but there is still something else.
In 1834 cocoa was imported into Sri Lanka for the first time, and it is already a reliable evidence.
The epoch date is 1834.

SUGAR
Sugar is the Old World product, and, extremely expensive, so we suppose, sweet stuff helped the conventional East to develop. Sugar is fast energy for the body. For this reason the development of beet and sugarcane growing should become № 1 problem. We observe realistic evidences.

1822 - the first sugar beet appeared in Ukraine
1827 - the first sugar beet appeared in Russia
1829 - (the date is approximate) the first sugarcane planting were started in India
1830 – the first ideas of sugarcane planted in the USA appeared
1831 - (the date is calculated) the first sugarcane plantations appeared in Louisiana
1835 - the first sugarcane plantations appeared in Hawaii
From 1838 till 1879 there were about 14 unsuccessful attempts to adjust sugar beet output in the USA
Winnebago and Chippewa tribes supplied a lot of maple syrup to the North West Fur Company. The most of maple sugar and syrup was produced in the period from 1850 to 1890. That is, even in the period of 1850-1890 the sugar hunger had not been satisfied yet.

As the text purpose is to date a real outlet of Europe in the outer market, the epoch date is 1829, the first sugarcane planting in India.

TOMATO
Apples of love was not the most important product, that is why for the first time manufacturers got interested in it in 1876: Heinz started to produce ketchup. In Crimea, it was planted for the first time in 1883. Dates are real.
The epoch date is 1876.

SUNFLOWER
Archeologists assert that sunflower seeds were found in the Moscow suburbs territory at excavations sites of the ancient settlement dated VII-V centuries B.C. This error of dating is not our problem but it is necessary to know about such things.
In 1510 the sunflower was planted in the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid, and in 1769 there was the first mention of industrial cultivation of sunflower. The gap is 259 years, and we have already seen this gap - in the Spanish evidences concerning geographical discoveries. In general, Europe was not interested in sunflower.
In 1828 in Russia, the serf from the Alekseevskaya village produced sunflower seed oil for the first time. In 1842 in Russia, the serf from the Alekseevskaya village produced sunflower seed oil for the first time once again. In such situation, the second date is more reliable.
The epoch date is 1842.

CORN
In 1515 corn has been planted in all parts of Southern Europe, however this magnificent culture was used in national cuisine only in Moldova. In 1540, thanks to Turks, corn appeared in Egypt, and thus the American settlers received a corn harvest for the first time in 1770, 255 years later after it was in widely planted in all Southern Europe. Here we have the same gap of 250 years that we have seen in the Chronology of geographical discoveries.

To England corn have started to import in 1828, into France - in 1831, and in 1847 in Russia have begun free distribution of corn seeds - for encouragement of deluting of new culture.
Epoch date 1828 though also 1847 is good.

POTATO
In 1795 they finally grew 8.3 kg of potato in England, that is, potato introduction by the tsar Peter I in Russia at the beginning of the 18 century seems doubtful. In 1813 potato was grown in Perm, but not in sufficient quantity. In 1817 potato hunger in Ireland is fixed. The cause of interest to this culture was as follows: potato was necessary for paper and paste production. Frenchmen also managed even to make explosive out of it, and, judging by regular potato revolts, peasants were forced to grow potato for the needs of the state to the detriment of own communities’ needs. In Krasnoyarsk in 1835 and there was the following situation: the households that were not engaged in potato growing for the country were sent to build fortresses. So potato was ground into starch by the whole village, and all that product was taken out from the village.
In 1820 the first potato was planted on Hawaii.
In 1834 there passed a series of potato mutinies in Russia.
The epoch date is 1817. Judging by hunger, it is the first date of mass planting.