Communist/Socialist Reality in Eastern Europe after 1991


Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
Western Eurasia
Thanks for the answers. I am aware Poles in particular find communism distasteful. I wonder if any of these countries have denial laws or something along the effect. The communists (literal Chilean Communist party) here are campaigning for it to be illegal to deny in any capacity the crimes against humanity during Pinochet's regime, somewhat similar to what some European countries have regarding Nazism. Odd thing we also had a 'transition' (Pinochet's regime's end coincided with the fall of the iron curtain 1989) so we transitioned to a democracy (capitalist though).
There is in Hungary and probably in some other country too, actually it is the same article that also prohibits the denial of Holocaust

Open Denial of Nazi Crimes and Communist Crimes
Section 333
Any person who denies before the public large the crime of genocide and other crimes committed against humanity by nazi and communist regimes, or expresses any doubt or implies that it is insignificant, or attempts to justify them is guilty of felony punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.

Use of Symbols of Totalitarianism
Section 335
Any person who:
a) distributes,
b) uses before the public at large, or
c) publicly exhibits,
the swastika, the insignia of the SS, the arrow cross, the sickle and hammer, the five-pointed red star or any symbol depicting the above so as to breach public peace - specifically in a way to offend the dignity of victims of totalitarian regimes and their right to sanctity - is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by custodial arrest, insofar as the did not result in a more serious criminal offense.

Now about actual attitudes to the communist regime, i would join Mister Spa's description of the situation (post #12 ) that there are many older people who miss the old times, either as longing for their youth or the social security existing back then, but it is not appealing to the younger people.

There are a lot of older people who are apologetic about old times - but you can't be sure are they mourning their passed younger days or socialism itself.

Younger people don't care - those among them who feel pressed with ugly face of capitalism restauration (so-calles and never-ending "transition" and "reforms") think more about emigration and not about socialism as solution.
Marxism-Leninism or far left in general is dead in Hungary as a political ideology. The former state party split to two after the fall of communism, one nominally pursuing Western European style socal democracy and distancing itself from her past, the other continuing to represent the communist ideology, but the best result of this communist Workersparty was in 1998 when they gained 4% of the votes. It never managed to enter the parliament and since then it recieves less than 1% of the votes (around 0,1-0,5%) in the elections.
The survival of the former commie individuals is another thing, there was never a great purge, some switched to other parties, from right to left, or moved to the business life, continued their professions, even in sensitive areas like secret services etc.

But it is interesting to think about how it shaped the mentality of the population in general, even if they are now anti-communist, voting for other parties and seemingly the country being very right wing. There is certainly a tendency toward authoritarianism, paternalism, strong leader... but i can't tell if it is a result of the 40 years communist rule producing a Homo Sovieticus (or Homo Kadaricus in case of Hungary), or does it go deeper and it is a legacy of hundreds of years of feudalism and continuing serf mentality (there never was a true strong urban civic class), or just a result of disappointment with the 1990s-2000s. I don't know the answer, all can be true.
Jan 2016
Collapsed wave
I'm very curious what the reality in post cold war eastern European nations is regarding the apologetic's or even existence of communist or hard line Marxist socialist parties is. What I mean is, how would the average citizen in Poland, Romania, ex-Czechoslovakia, Baltic countries etc. react or how they react to Marxism, those who deny or downplay soviet-communist crimes against humanity?

There is no such thing as an average citizen on this question. People tend to be polar opposites on this, with majority of young people being anti-marxist, while a significant percentage of old people tending to the good old times when they were young and could walk without pain in the joints

Mar 2019
Yeah, do tell me more about it:

(blue = right, red = left, pink = communist)
I really appreciate your effort, but it's a little too simplistic approach to the issue.

I'm pretty sure that what I've said is true as I have first-hand experience from these countries (SE Europe).

On a side note : the latest map is of 2011. I think Politics have changed a few times after that.
You can hardly tell that Macron's politics are of the right spectrum as well. In the best case scenario they can be considered centrist, but it's still more on the left side.
Likes: Futurist
Jul 2014
I am with armageddon87 on this.
Well, officialy, people despise comunists. There is active comunist party in Slovakia. In last elected they gained 0,61% votes. But.. there is big but. First of all, since 2010, the strongest party in Slovakia is SMER - socialist democratic party. Their highest achievement was around 40% in elections. Many of their members are ex-communists or their descendats. Also, 9 out of 10 political parties has **** load of ex-communist among its members. Even right wing parties are full of communists. Our current president is son of communist official and he also was member of party. Our minister of foreign was part of communist party. There is even member of ŠTB (political secret police) among right wing party. Suma summarum, many "hard core" members of communist party just changed their masks. Now they stand in front of people calling for "freedom of speech", more EU, more NATO, using antiRussian rhetorics etc. They are same people they just "changed the sides." As much as they were communist, just as much they are "democrats" now, yet still use communist practices. Missing backbone is basic requirement for standard politician in ex-soviet block.