Countries that were federations for a very long time

Jan 2013
956
Toronto, Canada
#31
What powers did the HRE government exert over the individual states within the empire?
That is a very complicated question. The first problem is that there were two types of states within the HRE - the original constituent states (Germany, Italy, Burgundy, Bohemia) and the states that were carved out of Germany. The second problem is that it varied enormously over time.

HRE control over Burgundy and Italy was solid in the 10th century and nonexistent by the end of 12th. German states didn't really emerge until the first interregnum. Until then, they were just the property of powerful feudal lords. Imperial control was reasonably firm until the beginning of the Reformation. However, power within the HRE government was gradually shifting from the Emperor to the Reichstag; this didn't have to be a form of decentralization but it became one. The Reformation severely undercut imperial control and the Thirty Years War all but destroyed it. Protestant states didn't want to take orders from a Catholic monarch and everyone saw that the Emperor was helpless to stop foreign armies from crisscrossing Germany. After 1648, the HRE government was just a Hapsburg government by another name. German leaders might support the Emperor, but they didn't do it because he was the Emperor. They did it because the Hapsburgs bribed them or because the Hapsburgs threatened them.
 
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Devdas

Ad Honorem
Apr 2015
4,691
India
#32
By "semi-autonomous" I mean the states/provinces, etc have limited sovereignty under a federal structure. I understand Kashmir was demoted to what would be called a territory in the US. It has no vote in the legislature and is directly supervised by the central government.
Jammu and Kashmir had been made a union territory like Delhi and Pondicherry with an elected Legislature and Lt Governor appointed from Delhi. Lieutenant Governor has more power than Governor appointed for states. However, there are other five union territory with no elected legislature.

If I am not wrong US territory like Puerto Rico don't vote in National election and no representation in American Congress. In India, union territory participate in election, only they don't have representation in Upper house The Rajya Sabha, no elected assembly except 3 Delhi, Pondichery and Jammu-Kashmir.
 
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stevev

Ad Honorem
Apr 2017
3,418
Las Vegas, NV USA
#33
I thought that Kashmir does, in fact, have representation in the Indian Parliament?
It seems things are in flux now. The courts are reviewing Modi's actions. This article only says Kashmir's powers in the Indian Union parliament have been "reduced". The powers held by various Indian territories vary but are always less than states. In the US territories can elect their own government and pass local laws consistent with federal laws. Wyoming Territory was the first US jurisdiction to give women the vote in local elections. But as a territory Wyoming had no representation or vote in national elections (US Senate, House, President). India seems to vary a bit on this point.

Modi’s Decision on Kashmir Reveals a Brittleness in India
 
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Devdas

Ad Honorem
Apr 2015
4,691
India
#34
It seems things are in flux now. The courts are reviewing Modi's actions. This article only says Kashmir's powers in the Indian Union parliament have been "reduced". The powers held by various Indian territories vary but are always less than states. In the US territories can elect their own government and pass local laws consistent with federal laws. Wyoming Territory was the first US jurisdiction to give women the vote in local elections. But as a territory Wyoming had no representation or vote in national elections (US Senate, House, President). India seems to vary a bit on this point.

Modi’s Decision on Kashmir Reveals a Brittleness in India
That just internal politics.

In India, there are are three types of laws - Union list, state list and concurrent list. Union list referred to those area where only Central government can make laws, state list are those area where only state government can make laws while concurrent list refer to area where both government can make laws.

When Kashmir was given autonomy, union and concurrent list were not applicable, over the time Article 370 weaken union list were applicable, before scrapping article 370 concurrent list was not applicable. GST law had to be separately ratified by Jammu and Kashmir Assembly.

A common Indian had always resented the special status, constitution and flag for Kashmir. The internal tumoil is just Modi's opponent targeting him.
 
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Devdas

Ad Honorem
Apr 2015
4,691
India
#35
So, an independent India was always destined to become a federal-style South Asian version of the EU?
I don't think unitary form of government would work for a country with 1.3 billion people. Also, states are organized based on a dominant language of the region, where their own language is used for all official purpose like Bengali in West Bengal, Konkani in Goa or Tamil in Tamil Nadu.
 
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Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,960
SoCal
#36
I don't think unitary form of government would work for a country with 1.3 billion people. Also, states are organized based on a dominant language of the region, where their own language is used for all official purpose like Bengali in West Bengal, Konkani in Goa or Tamil in Tamil Nadu.
China has 1.3 billion people and yet is a unitary state, though.