Cucuteni–Trypillia

Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv
At one time I mentioned the settlement of Talyanki - the largest settlement of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (5500 to 2750 BC). It covered an area of 350,000 km2 and was located in the Right-Bank Ukraine, Moldova and in the northern part of Romania. This culture has been mentioned on the forum several times.




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This is one of the earliest agricultural cultures in history.

And when I mentioned Talyanki in a conversation with my eldest daughter - she said - aah, Talyanki - this is here in Legezino. In that village she has a house with a courtyard. And last week I was visiting her. And I was quite surprised that Talyanki was two hundred meters from her house, on a vast field beyond a small river.


Legedzino on the map of Ukraine



This settlement occupied 450 hectares and had a population of at least 15 thousand. The geolocation survey which was carried out at this settlement and others showed the location of all the houses and ceramics kilns in this settlement. A total of 11 large Trypillian settlements were found in this small region in the very center of Ukraine.

These settlements are the largest in the world for the Neolithic and Eneolithic era.

Legedzino has a museum of Tripoli culture with a number of interesting artifacts. A guide of our museum tour was the wife of its director.

German archaeologists conducted a detailed geolocation survey of Talyanki and a number of other settlements and clearly identified the places where houses and stoves for ceramics stood. The museum has large aerial photographs of these places with the location of houses on them.



Talyanki




The settlements had a round or oval shape with houses located in several concentric circles.


The houses stood closely to each other with the entrance to the houses of the opposite circle. It turned out something like two or three ring streets. The center of the settlement was not built up. It served for meetings - or there they kept cattle (cows, sheeps, goats) there for the night. Oxens were the pulling force - like at the Ukrainian villagers. If something else makes Trypillians related to Ukraine beyond territiry, these are many of the painting elements of Ukrainian Easter eggs - Easter eggs.


Similar elements are in the painting of late Tripoli ceramics. Early ceramics were not colored but volumetric ornament.

The Trypillians did not know the potter's wheel.

And the technology of painting ceramics is similar to Hellenic ceramics. There are a number of elements of this relationship.

Dog on a Tripoli pot.


And this is the famous Trypillian ceramics with a binocular shaped. Its purpose is probably ritual. The vessels did not have a bottom.



Very early ceramics of the culture



A large number of female ceramic figures and only one or two male figures were found in the excavations. Almost all the figures are broken in two. They probably used them in ritual intacts, while breaking them, and then throwing them away.

Women on early figures were fatty


... and the late ones

 
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Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv
No traces of any fortifications around the settlements were found. Or they did not survive at all - or the Trypillians felt so confident that they did not protect their settlements.

Characteristic of the settlements was social equality. There are no signs of the property differenciation in this society. After several decades, Trypillians burned their settlements and moved to a new place. There is a version that they burned them when social inequality in some families was indicated. Or maybe it was done for hygiene purposes.



The head of the Trypillian woman. Reconstruction of the skull by Professor Gerasimov.

Through clay houses from the excavations, historians attempted to reconstruct the Tripoli dwelling. Two of them stand next to the museum in Legedzino. One of the clay artifacts shows a house on thick pillars. Probably, the houses were often set on trees cut down 2 meters above the ground. The houses were probably one and a half- or two-story. In the first tier, there may have been utility rooms. The second tier was residential. It had a small entrance hall and a room with a home altar and a large rounded stove.


Along the wall there was low elevation on which pots were installed.





A number of ceramic kilns were found. Including - the world's largest furnace of its kind with an area of 5 square meters
 

Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv
Trypillians smelted copper. Preserved molds. Although there are very few copper items in the excavation. Here is the earliest - a copper hook for fishing, dates from the 5th millennium BC.



Home altar - reconstruction



In addition to the Trypillians, a number of artifacts of the Chernyakhov culture were found in Legedzino - with a strong presence of Goths in it (2-4 century AD) and Scythian artifacts. All those ones are in the museum display

The view of the Talyanki field from the yard of my daughter


 
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Aug 2018
565
london
There is some evidence for potter's wheels:


“The earliest evidence for a device whose function corresponds to that of a potter’s wheel form part of the archaeological record of a workshop in Moldova, Varvarovka, dated to around 4000 BC (Gimbutas 1991). Evidence for the use of the potter’s wheel in Mesopotamia is slightly younger (Nissen 1988).

‘Roots of Ancient Greek Civilization: The Influence of Old Europe’, Harald Haarmann, 2014


“Through examining the changes in the ceramic technology of Pre-Cucuteni-Tripolye (Neolithic) through Chalcolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye culture, Ellis is able to show the beginings of ranked society. In the Neolithic pottery is made by individuals or individual households. With the Chalcolithic pottery begins to be painted and the designs and shapes become more standardized through time. As up-draught kilns are used, ceramics can be consistently fired at high temperatures with a slow cool down creating stronger ceramics. Chalcolithic vessels also show evidence of being created on potter's wheels and often in separate pottery workshops.”

‘The Cucuteni-Tripolye culture: study in technology and the origins of complex society’, Linda Ellis, 1984
 
Aug 2018
565
london
Cucuteni-Trypillia has the earliest known evidence of wheeled vehicles in the world, in the form of wheeled models:

“the present evidence for early wheeled transport does not support the traditional belief in the oriental invention of wheel and wagon. Full-size wheels and axles from central and eastern Europe clearly pre-date the earliest wheels from the Near East, and the indirect evidence )models, depictions) does not allow for a temporal gradient indicating diffusion ex oriente. Two alternative hypotheses remain. Innovation could have happened roughly simultaneously, but independently, in several regions (the polycentric model). … Alternatively, there was only one innovation centre. Following Maran (2004b), the late Tripolye culture (around 3700-3500 BC) in the steppe area north-west of the Pontic Sea is the most likely candidate for inventing wheeled transport, and the steppe cultures north of the Black Sea show well-documented relations to south-eastern Europe. Further eastward, future research is needed o clarify the contacts between the late Tripolye and Maikop cultures, but the latter may have played a crucial role in transferring the wagon techno-complex to Mesopotamia (Maran 2004b, 438).”

Fowler, C. ed., The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe, 2015, p.113.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=...page&q&f=false


“Maran (2004) suggests the Late Tripolye culture [Ukraine] as the most likely place of origin for wheeled vehicles. Late Tripolye is the only culture to show evidence of wagons predating 3500 BCE (Burmeister 2004), in the form of drinking cups provided with rotating model wheels and with ox foreparts protruding from the front of the cup. In addition to these wagon-shaped drinking cups, there are numerous Late Tripolye drinking cups in the shape of an ox-pulled sledge, which is thought to be the immediate predecessor of the ox-pulled wagon.

Between 4000 and 3400 BCE, the Late Tripolye culture was the most thriving and populous agricultural community in the the entire Copper Age world, cultivating extremely fertile black soil, in villages covering hundreds of hectares and housing up to 15,000 people. These agriculturalist people needed transport, whether by sledge of wheeled wagon. The local forest-steppe provided enough trees for the construction of primitive solid wheels but also sufficient open and level fields for the movement of wheeled traffic, unlike the forested and hilly landscape that covered most of Europe.

I am connecting Maran’s hypothesis that wheeled were invented in the Late Tripolye culture with the hypothesis that the Tripolye culture was taken over by PIE speakers by c.4000 BCE. The PIE speakers would have largely assimilated the earlier Tripolye population linguistically by the time wheeled vehicles were invented, probably c.3600 BC. The location of the Late Tripolye culture makes sense as the geographical center for the spread of the wheeled vehicles; it is also very near the middle of the IE-speaking area [...] Vehicle technology was probably transmitted to West Asia from the Tripolye culture via the Caucasus, where the Pontic-Caspian and West Asian cultural spheres interacted with each other during the fourth millennium BCE. [...]

Mallory leaves the origin of wheeled vehicles open but comments:

‘Tomas Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov [1995] … have noted that … Proto-Indo-European *kʷékʷlo-bears striking similarity to the words for vehicles in Sumerian gigir, semitic *galgal-, and Kartvelian *grgar. With the putative origin of wheeled vehicles set variously to the Pontic-Caspian, Transcaucasia or to Sumer, we may be witnessing the original word for a wheeled vehicle in four different language families. Furthermore, as the Proto-Indo-European form is built on an Indo-European verbal root *kʷel-, “to turn, to twist”, it is unlikely that the Indo-Europeans borrowed their word from one of the other languages. This need not, of course, indicate that the Indo-Europeans invented wheeled vehicles, but it might suggest that they were in some form of contact relation with these Near Eastern languages in the fourth millennium BC. (Mallory, 1989)’

Sumerian gigir, inscribed in the cuneiform tablets of the third millennium BCE, may indeed provide the earliest written testimony for an originally PIE word.”

Parpola, A., The Roots of Hinduism, the Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization, 2015, p.43.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=...page&q&f=false
 

Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv
There is some evidence for potter's wheels:


“The earliest evidence for a device whose function corresponds to that of a potter’s wheel form part of the archaeological record of a workshop in Moldova, Varvarovka, dated to around 4000 BC (Gimbutas 1991). Evidence for the use of the potter’s wheel in Mesopotamia is slightly younger (Nissen 1988).

‘Roots of Ancient Greek Civilization: The Influence of Old Europe’, Harald Haarmann, 2014
- I found such a quote. Probably it's just a version that it was a potter’s wheel



Рис. 3-88 Возможные варианты реконструкции примитивного гончарного круга на основании данных из Варваровки, Молдавия. Приблизительно 4000 г. до н.э.
Fig. 3-88 Possible reconstruction options for a primitive pottery wheel based on data from Varvarovka, Moldova. Around 4000 BC


http://studepedia.org/index.php?vol=3&post=9303
 
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Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv
Cucuteni-Trypillia has the earliest known evidence of wheeled vehicles in the world, in the form of wheeled models:

“the present evidence for early wheeled transport does not support the traditional belief in the oriental invention of wheel and wagon. Full-size wheels and axles from central and eastern Europe clearly pre-date the earliest wheels from the Near East, and the indirect evidence )models, depictions) does not allow for a temporal gradient indicating diffusion ex oriente. Two alternative hypotheses remain. Innovation could have happened roughly simultaneously, but independently, in several regions (the polycentric model). … Alternatively, there was only one innovation centre. Following Maran (2004b), the late Tripolye culture (around 3700-3500 BC) in the steppe area north-west of the Pontic Sea is the most likely candidate for inventing wheeled transport, and the steppe cultures north of the Black Sea show well-documented relations to south-eastern Europe. Further eastward, future research is needed o clarify the contacts between the late Tripolye and Maikop cultures, but the latter may have played a crucial role in transferring the wagon techno-complex to Mesopotamia (Maran 2004b, 438).”

Fowler, C. ed., The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe, 2015, p.113.
- I remember this picture entitled - a children's toy from Trypillia. I've seen it many years ago. Some of our archaeologists doubted its authenticity, so I did not focuse on the theme of the wheel at Trypillia here. I will try later to look for comments on the account of this toy


And further. Although it is not recommended here to refer to the research of geneticists - I want to mention that I remember the publication which states that the horse was first tamed in the steppe region from the Northern Black Sea to the northern Caspian. Here may be the answer to the question - where did the wheel first appear
 

Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv
If anyone will be interested - I can post a number of other photos of interesting exhibits of the museum in Legedzino I have made a week ago there. Museum Directorate allowed me to publish them on the Internet
 
Aug 2018
565
london
If anyone will be interested - I can post a number of other photos of interesting exhibits of the museum in Legedzino I have made a week ago there. Museum Directorate allowed me to publish them on the Internet
Please do!
 

Dir

Nov 2015
1,957
Kyiv


5 square meter pottery kiln




livestock figures



bone needles and awls



fishing net sinkers



flint knives, 4 thousand BC



natural quartz for the knives and other tools was delivered to Talyanki from Western Ukraine (Ternopol) at a distance of about 400 kilometers
 
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