Daily Dose of Archaeology: 5.0

Lowell2

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Jun 2014
6,541
California
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180807192842.htm The importance of the Atlantic walrus ivory trade for the colonization, peak, and collapse of the medieval Norse colonies on Greenland has been extensively debated. Nevertheless, no studies have directly traced medieval European ivory back to distinct Arctic populations of walrus. Analysing the entire mitogenomes of 37 archaeological specimens from Europe, Svalbard, and Greenland, we here discover that Atlantic walrus comprises two monophyletic mitochondrial (MT) clades, which diverged between 23 400 and 251 120 years ago. Our improved genomic resolution allows us to reinterpret the geographical distribution of partial MT data from 306 modern and nineteenth-century specimens, finding that one of these clades was exclusively accessible to Greenlanders. With this discovery, we ascertain the biological origin of 23 archaeological specimens from Europe (most dated between 900 and 1400 CE). These results reveal a significant shift in trade from an early, predominantly eastern source towards a near exclusive representation of Greenland ivory. Our study provides empirical evidence for how this remote Arctic resource was progressively integrated into a medieval pan-European trade network, contributing to both the resilience and vulnerability of Norse Greenland society.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
https://www.helsinki.fi/en/news/language-culture/archaeologists-found-traces-of-submerged-stone-age-settlement-in-southeast-finland Ar*chae*olo*gists found traces of sub*merged Stone Age set*tle*ment in south*east Fin*land The prehistoric settlement submerged under Lake Kuolimojärvi provides us with a clearer picture of the human occupation in South Karelia during the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Stone Age (about 10,000 – 6,000 years ago) and it opens up a new research path in Finnish archaeology.
The hearth feature and associated find materials indicate that a submerged Stone Age settlement site has now been located at Lake Kuolimojärvi – the first undisputed observation of this kind in Finland. The nearest similar sites are located in northwestern Russia and southern parts of Scandinavia. It is clear that the hearth feature, which today lies at a depth of about one metre, and the other finds are from the period before the rise of the water level (about 9,000 to 8,000 years ago).
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
Early metal use and crematory practices in the American Southeast | PNAS and https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180807094924.htm A research team including Matthew Sanger, assistant professor of anthropology at Binghamton University, State University at New York, has found a copper band that indicates ancient Native Americans engaged in extensive trade networks spanning far greater distances than what has been previously thought.

"Our research shows that Native Americans living roughly 3,5000 years ago were engaged in extensive trade networks spanning far greater distances than we had previously assumed (more than 1,500 km) and across various regions that we did not know were connected (the Great Lakes and the coastal Southeast)," said Matthew Sanger, assistant professor of anthropology at Binghamton University. "While we still struggle to understand the nature of these trade networks, our findings suggest that they moved not only objects (such as the piece of worked copper we recovered) but may also be a pipeline through which belief systems, cultural values and societal norms were also exchanged. The possibility that information also traveled along trade networks is evidenced by the shared use of cremation found alongside the exchange of copper between the two regions."
 
Mar 2017
801
Colorado
Early metal use and crematory practices in the American Southeast | PNAS and https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180807094924.htm A research team including Matthew Sanger, assistant professor of anthropology at Binghamton University, State University at New York, has found a copper band that indicates ancient Native Americans engaged in extensive trade networks spanning far greater distances than what has been previously thought.

"Our research shows that Native Americans living roughly 3,5000 years ago were engaged in extensive trade networks spanning far greater distances than we had previously assumed (more than 1,500 km) and across various regions that we did not know were connected (the Great Lakes and the coastal Southeast)," said Matthew Sanger, assistant professor of anthropology at Binghamton University. "While we still struggle to understand the nature of these trade networks, our findings suggest that they moved not only objects (such as the piece of worked copper we recovered) but may also be a pipeline through which belief systems, cultural values and societal norms were also exchanged. The possibility that information also traveled along trade networks is evidenced by the shared use of cremation found alongside the exchange of copper between the two regions."
"Extensive" doesn't quite cover it. Michigan copper is quite identifiable due to it's high copper content (highest of the non-forging world, I believe). Michigan copper was found as small jewelry trinkets (triangles) as far as Central America ... I want to say Peru, but I'm not positive about that.

I've seen pictures of it and read the text ... but I had difficulty finding it the last time I looked.

Still looking for the pictures, this is from Michigan State University:
"Tools and ornaments made with Great Lakes Copper have been found as far south as Mexico and as far North as the Bering Strait."
https://msu.edu/~oberg/copper/funfacts.html
 
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Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
Archaeologists explore a rural field in Kansas, and a lost city emerges there were those murky tales of a sprawling city on the Great Plains and a chief who drank from a goblet of gold.

A few years ago, Donald Blakeslee, an anthropologist and archaeology professor at Wichita State University, began piecing things together. And what he’s found has spurred a rethinking of traditional views on the early settlement of the Midwest, while potentially filling a major gap in American history. Blakeslee located what he believes to be the lost city of Etzanoa, home to perhaps 20,000 people between 1450 and 1700.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180815124221.htm In the midst of World War II on August 18, 1943, the USS Abner Read struck what was presumed to be a Japanese mine in the Bering Sea. The catastrophic blast took the lives of 71 American sailors. For their families, the final resting place of loved ones lost remained unknown. Until now. On July 16, 2018, a team of researchers using robotics technology discovered the sunken stern of the World War II destroyer -- solving a 75-year-old mystery.
 

Lowell2

Ad Honorem
Jun 2014
6,541
California
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180815141326.htm
Akrotiri is the Minoan town on Santorini that was damaged by earthquakes building up to the eruption and then buried under ash once Thera erupted. The whole town site has a modern roof structure over it to protect the fragile site from the elements.
Credit: Copyright Gretchen Gibbs
New analyses that use tree rings could settle the long-standing debate about when the volcano Thera erupted by resolving discrepancies between archeological and radiocarbon methods of dating the eruption, according to new University of Arizona-led research
 
Dec 2011
1,814
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-018-0394-4 and Homo sapiens developed a new ecological niche that separated it from other hominins

A review of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental datasets relating to Middle and Late Pleistocene hominin dispersals within and beyond Africa demonstrates unique environmental settings and adaptations for Homo sapiens relative to other hominins. Our species' ability to occupy diverse and 'extreme' settings around the world stands in stark contrast to the ecological adaptations of other hominin taxa, and may explain how our species became the last surviving hominin on the planet.

In contrast to our ancestors and contemporary relatives, our species not only colonized a diversity of challenging environments, including deserts, tropical rainforests, high altitude settings, and the palaeoarctic, but also specialized in its adaptation to some of these extremes.
some members of the genus Homo (namely Homo erectus) had made it to Spain, Georgia, China, and Indonesia by 1 million years ago. Yet, existing information from fossil animals, ancient plants, and chemical methods all suggest that these groups followed and exploited environmental mosaics of forest and grassland.

It has also been argued that our closest hominin relatives, Homo Neanderthalensis - or the Neanderthals -- were specialized to the occupation of high latitude Eurasia between 250,000 and 40,000 years ago. The base for this includes a face shape potentially adapted to cold temperatures and a hunting focus on large animals such as woolly mammoths. Nevertheless, a review of the evidence led the authors to again conclude that Neanderthals primarily exploited a diversity of forest and grassland habitats, and hunted a diversity of animas, from temperature northern Eurasia to the Mediterranean.

In contrast to these other members of the genus Homo, our species -- Homo sapiens - had expanded to higher-elevation niches than its hominin predecessors and contemporaries by 80-50,000 years ago, and by at least 45,000 years ago was rapidly colonizing a range of palaeoarctic settings and tropical rainforest conditions across Asia, Melanesia, and the Americas. Furthermore, the authors argue that the continued accumulation of better-dated, higher resolution environmental datasets associated with our species' crossing the deserts of northern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and northwest India, as well as the high elevations of Tibet and the Andes, will further help to determine the degree to which our species demonstrated novel colonizing capacities in entering these regions.
Interesting map. I especially took note of Wallace's biogeographic boundary.
 

sparky

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,165
Sydney
.
Glaciations should qualifies as cold I would think
I see no reason to exclude Neanderthal , they certainly mastered survival in the frost zone ,
clothing is the key , obviously
 

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