- Oct 2016
Are they near the coast ?In both Portugal and Spain there are regions that had "proto cities", permanent settlements with stone walls located on the top of hills.
It seems that its builders were descendents of the Neolithic populations who built megalithic monuments in previous centuries.
There are no clear signs of a rigid hierarchy in these communities (at least in the proto cities in western Portugal) and there are some signs of organized violence.
The walls seem to have spots for archers. There is a great production of arrows. Some male bodies were found in common graves, etc.
Aha ! Walls to keep things IN ... I was wondering about that, as some settlements that are supposed to be without fortifications seem to be artistically rendered as large enclosures .These elements were present in the late Neolithic and early Copper Age, well before the arrival of central Europe migrants.
One thing seems certain, in the late copper age and early bronze age there's a radical change. The population are no longer concentrated in proto cities. Most of them are abandoned. People are now living in valleys and open spaces without fortifications. The bell beaker kit is more widespread and even though the societies in Western Portugal seem more peaceful there some signs of a warrior elite.
These are just interpretations though.
Maybe there was no war, just intensive hunting. The walls were made to guard cattle at night. And the change in the pattern of territorial occupation might have been a response to an environment collapse.
Or maybe it was everything I wrote above.