Early Austrian empire censuses

Jan 2014
1,010
Rus
#1
Have somebody links on results of some censuses in Austrian Empire in XVIII century?

I am interesting in data on ethnic structure of population of cities, villages and counties.
 

Kotromanic

Ad Honorem
Dec 2011
4,721
Iowa USA
#3
Have somebody links on results of some censuses in Austrian Empire in XVIII century?

I am interesting in data on ethnic structure of population of cities, villages and counties.
p. 605 of Kann, R.A.,A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918 (U. of California, 1974)

From Appendix I of Kann,

Hungary (1787): 8,000,000 source: official statistics & estimates of G.E. Hollos

Hapsburg domain
exclusive of Lombardy
and German Vorlande (1780): 17,435,000
(1786): 20,600,000

This book provides nationality censuses after 1843 if you are interested I can post later today.

The lack of data prior to 1843 seems to be evidence that prior to the French Revolution national awareness was a narrowly subscribed state of mind in Central Europe.
 
Jul 2014
243
Gorlicium
#6
I always found this map helpful, when it comes to the various ethnicties within the empire,
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Austria_Hungary_ethnic.svg.
I can already see, that this map is not everywhere correct, compared to census data. I have census data for Galicia and eastern part of Austrian Silesia. But the first census from which I have data for linguistic groups is 1880. Another problem is that Austrian censuses did not recognize Jews as an ethnic group. They counted Jews in religious data, but in ethnic (languages) data, there was no option to declare Jewish - they had to declare something else, for example German language, etc.

I also have data for religious groups from these regions since 1857.
 
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Tulun

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
3,789
Western Eurasia
#7
p. 605 of Kann, R.A.,A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918 (U. of California, 1974)

From Appendix I of Kann,

Hungary (1787): 8,000,000 source: official statistics & estimates of G.E. Hollos

Hapsburg domain
exclusive of Lombardy
and German Vorlande (1780): 17,435,000
(1786): 20,600,000

This book provides nationality censuses after 1843 if you are interested I can post later today.

The lack of data prior to 1843 seems to be evidence that prior to the French Revolution national awareness was a narrowly subscribed state of mind in Central Europe.
The 1784-87 Hungarian census didn't ask on nationality or mother tongue, only religion (christian vs jew), social status, occupation etc. it's datas are online in Hungarian, i don't know if they are also around somewhere in German. It's main purpose was for the military (conscription) and taxation and Joseph II wanted to Germanize the whole Habsburg realms so he probably didn't care about it. Hungary, Croatia and Transylvania (the realms of the Hungarian crown) together had 8,5 million people (8 million without Croatia) and the Military Frontier was also not included in it (around 600 k people there).

I think in the Austrian part there was census earlier, but i don't know anything about it.

In Hungary the 1784-87 was the first one. Before that there was also a conscription of taxpayers in 1715-1721, this again didn't include ethnic datas and it was not a real census, tax exempts for example were not included (most of the nobles, clerics, etc). estimates range from 2,5 million to 4 million based on its datas the population of Hungary and Transylvania. Around 215,000 taxpayers were listed by name so there are also estimates based on the surnames to determine their ethnicity. in Hungary and Transylvania together 41,42 % had Hungarian, 15,17% had German, 22,39% Slovak and Ruthene, 5,28% Serbo-Croatian, 15,74% Romanian surnames. the real share of Hungarians could be around 44-50%. The share of Hungarians had to decrease for the time of 1784-87 census as the 18th century witnessed huge immigration waves especially during the period of Maria Theresia and the 19th century was "regeneration" in this regard.

Of course when i speak about Hungary i mean the historical one, not the present borders.

I can give links but these are not in English so i guess you won't be able to use them, Népszámlálási digitális adattár for the 1784-87 census datas, digitalized form of the book Az első magyarországi népszámlálás (1784-87) /The first Hungarian census (1784-87) published by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 1960. The same site has detailed census datas for all the later censuses too.

For the 1715-1721 conscription
KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár
Magyarország népessége a Pragmatica Sanctio korában/The population of Hungary during the age of Pragmatica Sanctio published by the Royal Hungarian Statistical Office in 1896.

Also the originals were digitalized on settlement level A Magyar Oszágos Levéltár adatbázisai (click on Az 1715. évi országos összeírás and so on) or if somebody is particularily interested for present day Slovakia you can find them on Genealogy - Tourist Guide - Slovakia - Kosice - Bratislava - Guide to Travel Trip Hotel Info Roots Forum Church Birth Records of Slovakia for each Slovakian village. The original conscriptions were made in Latin.
 
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Dec 2013
266
Prague, Bohemia
#8
Well, Austrian empire did not yet exist in 18th century. It was still 'just' a Habsburg monarchy - a highly decentralized personal union of various monarchies under Habsburgs. Only in the second half of the 18th century during the reign of Maria Theresia and Joseph II attempts to centralize the monarchy arose.

The first attempts at 'united' censuses ('Conscriptiones') that were to be conducted in the entire 'Austrian' territory of the Habsburg monarchy started appearing only after 1754*. Those censuses were not concerned with ethnicity or languages - they were made for fiscal and military reasons, therefore generally contained only information such as age, sex, marital status in some cases even occupation, religion etc.
They however suffered from significant organizational issues - they were conducted simultaneously by clergy and the secular nobility, both of which had different approaches. The censuses were also disrupted by international events (eg. The Seven Years' War).

The only censuses that can be said to provide information regarding some sort of a 'linguistical composition' in Cisleithania were those after 1880 when the goverment of Eduard Taaffe approved an additional column in the census - 'Umgangssprache' ("Conversial language").

The information regarding ethnic composition in Cisleithania up to 1880 is more or less based primarily on the work of scholars/ethnographers rather than strictly on official censuses.

*Mind you, there were various 'registries' prior to 1754, but they were kept separately in each constituent part of the Habsburg monarchy and also did not contain ethnicity or language.
 
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Jan 2014
1,010
Rus
#10
Tulun, thank you very much, aspecially for link. Very sad that 1784-87 census have no data on ethnicity and language.

As i know in the begining of XIX century Hungarian gotherment begun politic of standartization and Magyarization. So it would be very interest do understand situation before it. Specifically about Ruthenians.

Was the census of 1850 year next to 1787 year, or is it lack of the data in the site konyvtar.ksh.hu?

Who is the "szasz"?
 

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