Excluding the USSR, where in the world were Communist parties the strongest before WWII?

It is true that the CGT was an enormous syndicate,but with the Marshall program,and the help of the CIA,the syndicate divided himself in two tendances:CGT pro communist,and CGT-FO pro social-democrat.But the CIA was not very happy because they ambitioned to divise the syndicate of the dockers-CGT,which was the "fortress of the harbours",and in reality, the division succeeded only in the public function,which interested nobody.
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Dec 2014
Thank you very much dear compatriot.My spanish maternal gran father Feliciano Sanchez Garcia (1913-2012) oldest spanish officer of Nimes ( quarter of the 2d regiment of Foreign Legion) had passed in 1936 from the "batallon de los cazadores de Las Navas de Tolosa" of La Rache (Marroco) to the regiment of infantry of line "Wad Ras",employed in the sierra of Guadarrama.En february 1937,he engaged in the tank school of Alcala de Henares.He had all the informations by his friend Karl Fort,alias "Carlos Fiorio el mejicano",instructor in Alcala,member of the NKVD.In 1939,Fort passed in Oran and was in the quarter where was kept Cipriano Mera,leader of the IVth army corps,who rescued in march 1939 the general Casado in Madrid.
Very interesting. Cipriano Mera died in Paris in 1975. He never wanted medals, honours and any kind of acknowledgment (one of the short number of republicans public figures has my sympathies and respect).

Cipriano mera and his girl friend (they never get married). in Paris in seventies.

He was a honorable enemy. and he deserved to be respected by his enemies the Whites. He never accepted privileges or prizes or anything ... and during the war.. he never looted, robbed or murdered .... he was always a man of Honor. But he was anticomunist (Marx).... he was an anarchist.

Even fascists respect him!
Dec 2014
Interesting--though for what it's worth, the Catalans and Basques could certainly be described as ethnic groups and both of them have their own federal unit on this map.
Well... it is possible to say yes as....culture groups...but you can see... Andalucia is broken in two piece... as Castile (Old and New) and Cantabria is Old Castile... but, nor Basque provincies nor Catalonia accepted that Federal Consittution.. they wanted the Absolute King! Altar and Throne!
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Cipriano Mera,member of the CNT, had organized in february 1936 the big and violent revolutionary strike of the construction in Madrid.He was present at the fall of the quarters Carabanchel and La Montana,and passed all the grades from chief of century to general four stars...In Paris and his suburb (Boulogne-Billancourt,Choisy le Roi) he worked as "worker in construction" until his retreat.His comrades named him "el obrero general".A french journalist has filmed his burial in Boulogne in 1975.
Sep 2016
Belgian Labour Party had the Charter of Quaregnon, which was a political manifesto and formed the doctrinal basis. Here is the text of the Charter :

1. Wealth in general, and the means of production in particular, are natural resources, or the result of manual- or intellectual labour of former generations, as well as of the present generation; consequently they must be considered as the common heritage of all humanity.
2. Only for reasons of social benefit and with the goal to provide as much freedom and well-being to every human, it is allowed to provide people or groups with separate rights to that common heritage.
3. The realisation of this ideal brings with it of course the disappearance of the capitalist scheme, which divides society into two hostile classes: one that without working can enjoy property; the other which is obliged to cede part of its produce to the ruling class.
4. Workers can only expect their liberation from the abolition of classes and a thorough reorganisation of society. This reform will not be exclusively for the benefit of the proletariat, but for the whole of humanity; however because it is opposed to the immediate interests of the ruling classes, the liberation of the workers must be mainly the work of the workers themselves.
5. On a material level the goal must be to gain the free use of all results of production. This goal is only possible in a society where collective work replaces more and more individual work, which means the collective use of natural resources and means of production.
6.The conversion of the capitalist scheme into a collectivistic scheme of course must be accompanied by herewith coherent reforms:
1) On a moral level, by developing charity and observing solidarity.
2) On a political level, by transforming the state towards a management of resources.
7. Socialism must observe therefore at the same time the material, moral and political liberation of the workers. Nevertheless material liberation must be the main goal, because the concentration of capital in the hands of some classes already determines the basis of the other forms of the predominance.
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