Greatest Scholars of the Arabic Golden Age

Oct 2018
766
Adelaide south Australia
#11
al-Jahiz expounded natural selection by way of survival of the fittest, circa 8th century. He was a brilliant literateur and grammarian as well.
THAT IS FASCINATING.! I shouldn't be surprised.

Always wondered what ended the The Golden Age. The Mongolian Invasion is a tidy explanation. I wonder if the reasons are quite that tidy? Ie were there other significant factors? What else was happening in spheres of influence at that time? Seems a bit coincidental that the Muslim Golden age ended just as the European renaissance was about to flower.

Could you suggest something of al Jahiz about Evolution I could read?
 
Jul 2012
2,734
Dhaka
#12
THAT IS FASCINATING.! I shouldn't be surprised.

Always wondered what ended the The Golden Age. The Mongolian Invasion is a tidy explanation. I wonder if the reasons are quite that tidy? Ie were there other significant factors? What else was happening in spheres of influence at that time? Seems a bit coincidental that the Muslim Golden age ended just as the European renaissance was about to flower.
Mongol invasions just put an end to an already declining culture. Quest for knowledge flourish in stable and economically advanced societies. Internal political rivalry already destabilized Muslim lands when Mongols arrived. Muslim world stabilized again under the Ottomans, but then the Ottoman culture (much like the Romans) was much more military-oriented unlike their predecessors which wasn't quite conducive to intellectual pursuit.

Could you suggest something of al Jahiz about Evolution I could read?
He did not quite formulate a coherent theory, nor did he suggest evolution as such. In his encyclopedic Book of Animals, he made some observations in explaining differences within species that are similar to natural selection (such as, passing of favorable traits to offspring) and survival of the fittest. He also postulated about effect of ecosystem on physiology.
 
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Oct 2018
766
Adelaide south Australia
#13
Mongol invasions just put an end to an already declining culture. Quest for knowledge flourish in stable and economically advanced societies. Internal political rivalry already destabilized Muslim lands when Mongols arrived. Muslim world stabilized again under the Ottomans, but then the Ottoman culture (much like the Romans) was much more military-oriented unlike their predecessors which wasn't quite conducive to intellectual pursuit.



He did not quite formulate a coherent theory, nor did he suggest evolution as such. In his encyclopedic Book of Animals, he made some observations in explaining differences within species that are similar to natural selection (such as, passing of favorable traits to offspring) and survival of the fittest. He also postulated about effect of ecosystem on physiology.

Thanks, seems it was as I suspected; the mongol invasion was perhaps a catalyst. A great pity; the term "Golden Age' is no exaggeration. It is my perception that was equal to the European renaissance, ,if not greater. Was there a known genius of the brilliance of Leonardo Da Vinci? What about Artists? I ask these questions to learn.

Saying something is ''similar to" does not mean it is the same thing, but still most impressive thinking. Darwin did not discover evolution from a blank page. EG he was preceded by his Grandfather Erasmus Darwin, who had noticed shells in cuttings many miles from the sea. He was a great thinker, and part of the Midlands Enlightenment. He was the first Briton to discuss evolution: "Erasmus Darwin discusses the descent of life from a common ancestor, sexual selection, the analogy of artificial selection-----".

Lamarck had a theory that acquired characteristics within a species were passed on to offspring. Somewhat similar to Charles Darwin, and popular at the time, but a dead end.

Erasmus Darwin
 
Jul 2012
2,734
Dhaka
#14
Was there a known genius of the brilliance of Leonardo Da Vinci? What about Artists? I ask these questions to learn.
Painting of living beings is strictly forbidden in Islam, so you won't find any artist of note. Omar Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician as well as a great poet, to draw a parallel.

Saying something is ''similar to" does not mean it is the same thing, but still most impressive thinking. Darwin did not discover evolution from a blank page. EG he was preceded by his Grandfather Erasmus Darwin, who had noticed shells in cuttings many miles from the sea. He was a great thinker, and part of the Midlands Enlightenment. He was the first Briton to discuss evolution: "Erasmus Darwin discusses the descent of life from a common ancestor, sexual selection, the analogy of artificial selection-----".

Lamarck had a theory that acquired characteristics within a species were passed on to offspring. Somewhat similar to Charles Darwin, and popular at the time, but a dead end.

Erasmus Darwin
Since Darwinian theory of evolution has some deep flaws, being 'similar' is rather a compliment than 'same'. But that discussion is for another thread.
 
Oct 2018
766
Adelaide south Australia
#15
Painting of living beings is strictly forbidden in Islam, so you won't find any artist of note. Omar Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician as well as a great poet, to draw a parallel.



Since Darwinian theory of evolution has some deep flaws, being 'similar' is rather a compliment than 'same'. But that discussion is for another thread.
@ M S Islam;

Yes,I'm aware of the brilliance of Omar Khayyam, but he can't be realistically compared with Da Vinci ,who was essentially a polymath. I asked about a comparable figure in Islam. I guess there wasn't one.


I am aware that painting human beings is haram . However, that prohibition has not always been honoured, especially in non-religious art... There are even many pictorial depictions of the Prophet. (they are on Google Images) WhileI think of it ,why are photography, TV and films of humans allowed? ( I really don't know)

With the spread of
Islam
outward from the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century, the figurative artistic traditions of the newly conquered lands profoundly influenced the development of
Islamic art
. Ornamentation in Islamic art came to include figural representations in its decorative vocabulary, drawn from a variety of sources. Although the often cited opposition in Islam to the depiction of human and animal forms holds true for religious art and architecture, in the secular sphere such representations have flourished in nearly all Islamic cultures.


Warning: This article linked below contains depictions of people in Islamic art..

https://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/hd/figs/hd_figs.htm



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Yes, I'm aware of some of the flaws in Darwin's theory, but they do not invalidate the theory of evolution, as far as I'm aware. Like scientific theories generally, evolution is based on observation, and is consistent. This is one of those topics I will not debate,. like say the heliocentric view of the solars system, the moon landing and arguments from the Flat Earth Society..

I have come across fundamentalist Christians and others who want to argue that Darwin is wrong, or so deeply flawed, at evolution is discredited. So far, in over 40 years,I've never come across one such person who understands scientific method or who has actually read Darwin.
 
Oct 2013
5,478
Planet Nine, Oregon
#18
Aniconistic tendencies in Islam and Judaism didn't encourage representational art and pictorial realism, excepting some book illustrations. But the Architecture, ornament, tesselations.. Oh my! o_O
 
Oct 2018
766
Adelaide south Australia
#19
Aniconistic tendencies in Islam and Judaism didn't encourage representational art and pictorial realism, excepting some book illustrations. But the Architecture, ornament, tesselations.. Oh my! o_O
Agreed,Islamic architecture produced some of the most beautiful buildings in the world.-Hagia Sofia, Taj Mahal, The Alhambra. They make many great Christian buildings look vulgar, imo.

Depictions of human beings faded away, but not over night.
 
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Oct 2013
5,478
Planet Nine, Oregon
#20
Agreed,Islamic architecture produced some of the most beautiful buildings in the world.-Hagia Sofia, Taj Mahal, The Alhambra. They make many great Christian buildings look vulgar, imo.

Depictions of human beings faded away, but not over night.
Love 'em all! Though my favorite bit of architecture is Khajuraho and some Jain temples. Amazing.
 

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