- Aug 2019
- United States
Muhajirs are not an overclass and certainly not after Bhutto's reforms in the 70s. Today in interior Sindh the ruling class is composed of landowning Sindhi Muslims mainly from Sindhi-Baloch, Rajput and Pir families - they're extremely wealthy and influential and have held the provinical government for decades and were part of the federal govt as recently as the Zardari presidency. After Bhutto introduced a quota system in the 70s, the vast majority of provinicial and federal jobs in Sindh go to Sindhis in fact it's a running joke that if you're Sindhi you know at least somebody in your family that works for the government. The Muhajir generation that did make up most of the bureacracy in the 50s and 60s have died out or retired. Bhutto's reforms also introduced a quota system in the education sector in Sindh, ensuring people from rural Sindh getting priority admission in public universities in the province. Also while Hindu Sindhis made up most of the business class prior to partition and held a lot of power over Sindhi Muslims, the landed elite of Sindh were still Sindhi Muslims belonging to the tribes I mentioned earlier. Even to this day there is a big wealth gap between poor Sindhis and the landed elite aka the Wadera classIt's quite interesting that, as a result of partition, the Muslims in Sindh replaced their Hindu overclass with a new Muhajir overclass.
Yes but Mujahirs were educated elites, not entrepreneurs like Sindhi Hindus, their forced displacement had a huge impact on the economy of the newly independent Pakistan.
While the exodus of Sindhi Hindu merchants did have an impact on Sindh's economy early on, they were substituted by a large migration of Memon, Ismaili and Bohra Muslims to Karachi and Hyderabad among other cities in interior Sindh in fact I would go as far to say that there was a bigger net migration towards Sindh. Today most of the major businesses in Karachi are owned and run by Memons and Ismailis, they've made a huge contribution to Sindh and Pakistan's economy. Many of them opposed Bhutto's nationalization policies in the 70s as it impacted their businesses but fortunately it didn't have any long-term adverse effects. A part from the migration of mercantile Gujarati Muslims to Sindh, there has also been a migration of mercantile class Punjabis and Pashtuns to urban Sindh. A lot of businesses are run in Karachi by Khatris from Chiniot, Punjab - the Chinioti Sheikh community has had a big impact on Karachi and urban Sindh's economy. Then you have the Pashtuns in Sindh who run most of the small businesses such as brick and mortar stores. So I'd say Sindh has fully recovered economically since the partition.Educated elites are less capable of contributing to economic growth?
Also, Pakistan's loss was India's gain here.
We don't hate Hindus except for a loud minority, especially not in Sindh. There's a recent documentary called "Sindhustan" produced by an Indian woman with Sindhi ancestry, she talks about the migration of Hindus from Sindh to India and she in the documentary she said there wasn't any badblood between Hindu and Muslim Sindhis, in fact Sindh did not see the violence that Punjab and northern India did.Yes but their hate for Hindus surpasses every loss.