Historically cosmopolitan regions

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,960
SoCal
#1
Nowadays, there are various cities and/or metropolitan areas in the West that are very cosmopolitan. For instance, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, the San Francisco Bay Area, London, Paris, et cetera. However, which regions were historically cosmopolitan--as in, not just over the last century or so, but with a longer history of this?

So far, I could think of:

Pre-World War I eastern Anatolia. There were a lot of Turks, Kurds, Armenians, and--in the north--Greeks there back then:



Pre-World War II Vojvodina. There were a lot of Serbs, Hungarians, Germans, Slovaks, Croats, Romanians, and Rusyns there back then:



What applies to Vojvodina could also apply to the Romanian territory right to the east of it--as in, to the Romanian Banat, where cities such as Timisoara/Temesvar are located.

Dobruja, especially before World War II or even before World War I. There were a lot of Romanians, Turks, Bulgarians, and Lipovans (a Russian Old Believer sect) there back then:



Pre-World War II Transylvania. It had a lot of Romanians, Hungarians, Germans, and Jews back then:



Pre-World War II Bukovina. It had a lot of Romanians, Ukrainians, Germans, Jews, and even some Poles back then:



The Budjak. It has a lot of Moldovans, Ukrainians, Russians, Bulgarians, and Gagauz people:



Anyway, which other examples of historically cosmopolitan areas or territories are there?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,960
SoCal
#5

Naomasa298

Forum Staff
Apr 2010
35,030
T'Republic of Yorkshire
#7
Yep--especially before World War II. Here's a 1931 German ethnic map of Crimea:

https://i.redd.it/wbpmpq49wg1z.jpg



Did people from all over the Roman and Byzantine Empires settle there?
Yes.

Which non-British ethnic groups settled in London in large numbers before the 1800s?
Most European ethnic groups could be found in London. And since you count some other places before WW1, why are you limiting London to pre-1800?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,960
SoCal
#8
OK.

Most European ethnic groups could be found in London.
In what numbers?

And since you count some other places before WW1, why are you limiting London to pre-1800?
I was including those other places because in many of these cases they were probably already highly cosmopolitan decades before WWI if not more. I guess that I should have counted London and New York here if we allow data from the 1800s to be used here--though I do wonder how much of the diversity in places such as London and New York in the 1800s was the result of recent immigration. For instance, I know that most of the Italians, Jews, Hungarians, Poles, other Slavs, Armenians, Greeks, Arabs, et cetera who immigrated to the US only did so in or after 1880.
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,960
SoCal
#9
I believe that all of the examples in my OP here other than possibly the Budjak were already pretty cosmopolitan even before 1800.