History of Odisha

Jan 2019
17
Tallahassee, Florida
#1
Prehistory:
Until140 million bc, Odisha was part of the Gondwana supercontinent that consisted of Africa, India(along with Madagascar and Sri Lanka), Australia, and Antarctica. As a result, modern Odisha is home to some of the oldest rock formations in the world, such as the Mayurbhanj granite pluton, dated almost 3 billion years old.

The first human settlements in Odisha were during the lower paleolithic era. Many prehistoric tools have been dating from that era. Odisha is also famous for its ancient cave paintings. The earliest are the Vikaramkhol caves in Jarsuguda district dating from 3000-4000 BCE. What makes the caves unique are inscriptions of what is likely and ancient ancestor to the modern Odia language dated between 3000 to 1500 BC.

Vikramkhol caves. Ancient Brahmi inscriptions are badly faded, but still visible.

inscriptions consisting of geometric sequences and floral-like patterns yet to be interpreted. added around 1500 BCE.

Like most Brahmi inscriptions of the era, the Vikramkhol inscriptions appear to be painted and then cut into the stone. This example looks unfinished.

Another view of the shelters.
Pre Mauryan- In ancient times Odisha was known as Kalinga. It was likely a large and powerful civilization with one site submerged by the ocean potentially larger than Athens at its height.
Archaeologists unearth 2,500-year-old city in India
Kalinga was occupied by the Nanda Empire around 350 BC by Mahapadma Nanda, the first ruler of the Dynasty. Much of Odisha's pre-Mauryan history is recorded by the Hathigumpa inscriptions by Kharivela, the first Emperor of Kalinga, during the second century BC. The inscriptions were in an archaic form of the Kalinga script, an ancestor of the modern Odia script.

Hathigumpa on Udayagiri Hills, Bubaneshwar.
Pictures of the Inscriptions


statue of what is likely an Indo-Greek warrior dated between 1-200 BCE.

Mauryan Period- One of the most notable periods of Odia history were the Kalinga-Maurya Wars, fought under the Mauryan Empire Ashoka. Ashoka finally conquered Kalinga, but realized the horrors of war, prompting him to convert to Buddhism. Two of his edicts are located at Dhauli in Bubaneshwar, the site of the Kalinga War

Ashokan Edicts at Dhauli site, Puri district, Odisha. dated between 100-200 BC.
Medieval Period-After the fall of the Mauryans, Odisha was ruled by vairious powers, including the Guptas, SOmavmasi Dynasty, and the Eastern Gangal Dynasty. The Ganga Emperor Narasimha 1 is famous for building the Konark Sun Temple, considered one of the greatest examples of Medieval Hindu architecture not just in Odisha but in India.

Exterior view of Konark Sun Temple, 13th Century Ce. UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Interior view

Examples of Konark carvings. Leftmost carving a Kama scene. Second-left picture a carved chariot wheel. Second right picture a carving of a musician, and rightmost picture a carving of a young woman.
Odisha was one of the most successful regions of India at resisting Muslim invasion. It was not until 1568 that Odisha was conquered by the Sultanate of Bengal. The next few centuries of Foreign rule resulted in Odisha losing a lot of its identity, and it became more connected to Bengal. It was then added to the Mughal Empire by Emperor Akbar and then ruled by Aurangzeb. However, by 1751, it was conquered by the Marathas.
British period- After the Second Anglo Maratha War in 1803, Odisha was fully conquered by the British. Odisha was the site of the Paika Rebellion of 1817 led by Bakshi Jagabandhu(his statue is below)

In 1912, Odisha(than called Utkal) was added to the Biihar Province In 1936, It became its own Province called Orissa. It joined the independent Dominion of India in 1947 as the state of Orissa.. In 2011, Orissa's name was changed to Odisha, and the Oriya language was called Odia.
History of Odisha - Wikipedia
https://www.historyofodisha.in/ancient-history-of-odisha/

https://www.wondermondo.com/udayagiri-caves/

@Earl_of_Rochester @Bart Dale @Rajeev @Azad67 @kandal @Kapish Kapoor @tornada @civfanatic @Kevinmeath @Devdas @Aberc @Ealasaid @Aupmanyav @Dewal @ScientistAlexandrus @rvsakhadeo @Chlodio @Futurist @betgo @Linschoten @No Bias FTW @Dardic @Aatreya @janusdviveidis @malpusa @Tulius
 
Jul 2017
510
Sydney
#2
Prehistory:
Until140 million bc, Odisha was part of the Gondwana supercontinent that consisted of Africa, India(along with Madagascar and Sri Lanka), Australia, and Antarctica. As a result, modern Odisha is home to some of the oldest rock formations in the world, such as the Mayurbhanj granite pluton, dated almost 3 billion years old.

The first human settlements in Odisha were during the lower paleolithic era. Many prehistoric tools have been dating from that era. Odisha is also famous for its ancient cave paintings. The earliest are the Vikaramkhol caves in Jarsuguda district dating from 3000-4000 BCE. What makes the caves unique are inscriptions of what is likely and ancient ancestor to the modern Odia language dated between 3000 to 1500 BC.

Vikramkhol caves. Ancient Brahmi inscriptions are badly faded, but still visible.

inscriptions consisting of geometric sequences and floral-like patterns yet to be interpreted. added around 1500 BCE.



statue of what is likely an Indo-Greek warrior dated between 1-200 BCE.

Mauryan Period- One of the most notable periods of Odia history were the Kalinga-Maurya Wars, fought under the Mauryan Empire Ashoka. Ashoka finally conquered Kalinga, but realized the horrors of war, prompting him to convert to Buddhism. Two of his edicts are located at Dhauli in Bubaneshwar, the site of the Kalinga War

Ashokan Edicts at Dhauli site, Puri district, Odisha. dated between 100-200 BC.
Medieval Period-After the fall of the Mauryans, Odisha was ruled by vairious powers, including the Guptas, SOmavmasi Dynasty, and the Eastern Gangal Dynasty. The Ganga Emperor Narasimha 1 is famous for building the Konark Sun Temple, considered one of the greatest examples of Medieval Hindu architecture not just in Odisha but in India.

Exterior view of Konark Sun Temple, 13th Century Ce. UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Interior view

Examples of Konark carvings. Leftmost carving a Kama scene. Second-left picture a carved chariot wheel. Second right picture a carving of a musician, and rightmost picture a carving of a young woman.
Odisha was one of the most successful regions of India at resisting Muslim invasion. It was not until 1568 that Odisha was conquered by the Sultanate of Bengal. The next few centuries of Foreign rule resulted in Odisha losing a lot of its identity, and it became more connected to Bengal. It was then added to the Mughal Empire by Emperor Akbar and then ruled by Aurangzeb. However, by 1751, it was conquered by the Marathas.
British period- After the Second Anglo Maratha War in 1803, Odisha was fully conquered by the British. Odisha was the site of the Paika Rebellion of 1817 led by Bakshi Jagabandhu(his statue is below)

In 1912, Odisha(than called Utkal) was added to the Biihar Province In 1936, It became its own Province called Orissa. It joined the independent Dominion of India in 1947 as the state of Orissa.. In 2011, Orissa's name was changed to Odisha, and the Oriya language was called Odia.
History of Odisha - Wikipedia
Ancient Odisha

https://www.wondermondo.com/udayagiri-caves/

@Earl_of_Rochester @Bart Dale @Rajeev @Azad67 @kandal @Kapish Kapoor @tornada @civfanatic @Kevinmeath @Devdas @Aberc @Ealasaid @Aupmanyav @Dewal @ScientistAlexandrus @rvsakhadeo @Chlodio @Futurist @betgo @Linschoten @No Bias FTW @Dardic @Aatreya @janusdviveidis @malpusa @Tulius
Good post but that's not the statute of any Indo-Greek; I'd rather say it belongs to an Indo-Aryan warrior

I say this because the founder of the Sindh Roruka empire is known to have married an Oriya beauty of extreme renown

If anything, this statue could even belong to that warrior

An excellent post, all in all
 
Likes: Cobra Arbok
Jan 2019
17
Tallahassee, Florida
#3
Good post but that's not the statute of any Indo-Greek; I'd rather say it belongs to an Indo-Aryan warrior

I say this because the founder of the Sindh Roruka empire is known to have married an Oriya beauty of extreme renown

If anything, this statue could even belong to that warrior

An excellent post, all in all
Interesting, thank you for replying. You are right, that statue is somewhat vague and can portray a variety of different figures. However, it is worth noting that during the time of the Ror dynasty, Greeks had a lot of influence in the far northwest of the subcontinent, so there could be some interchangeability with regards to what kind of warrior the statue represents.
 
Sep 2015
396
Sri Lanka
#4
In the 8th year of his reign, King Kharavela attacked Rajagriha in Magadha and forced a Yavana king to retreat to Mathura:
 [Hathigumpha inscription, lines 7-8, probably around the 1st century BCE. Original text is in Brahmi script.]

"The taut posture and location at the entrance of the cave (Rani Gumpha) suggests that the male figure is a guard The aggressive stance of the figure and its western dress (short Kilt and Boots) indicates that the sculpture may be that of a Possible Yanava foreigner from the Graeco-Roman world."
In Early Sculptural Art in the Indian Coastlands: A Study in Cultural Transmission and Syncretism (300 BCE--CE 500), by Sunil Gupta
 

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Likes: Cobra Arbok
Jul 2017
510
Sydney
#5
In the 8th year of his reign, King Kharavela attacked Rajagriha in Magadha and forced a Yavana king to retreat to Mathura:
 [Hathigumpha inscription, lines 7-8, probably around the 1st century BCE. Original text is in Brahmi script.]

"The taut posture and location at the entrance of the cave (Rani Gumpha) suggests that the male figure is a guard The aggressive stance of the figure and its western dress (short Kilt and Boots) indicates that the sculpture may be that of a Possible Yanava foreigner from the Graeco-Roman world."
In Early Sculptural Art in the Indian Coastlands: A Study in Cultural Transmission and Syncretism (300 BCE--CE 500), by Sunil Gupta
Boots and short dhotis were not unknown to the warring tribes of North and west India

For instance, quite a few of the Loulan (Roran) mummies from north west China have been found wearing the very best boots and they are known to have reached there from Roruka in Sindh (please refer to Luders and Stein)
 
Likes: Cobra Arbok
Dec 2009
564
#7
The most interesting aspects of Odisha history for me are the Eastern Ganga Dynasty and Gajapati Dynasty. It is also worth to note that both play an important role in 2 famous medieval historical texts called Kalingathupparani and the Rayavacakamu. The first one was written during the Chola Dynasty period and describes the gruesome reality of warfare during the conflict with Kalinga while the latter text was written during the Vijayanagar period and praises the Gajapati ruler as a great monarch unlike the other enemies of the Vijayanagar Empire
 
Jan 2019
17
Tallahassee, Florida
#8
@NIROSHAN Ancient tomb discovery reveals traces of Indus Valley civilization in Oman

Just in case there is some confusion about who was expanding in which direction, here is an archeology report out of Oman showing an Indian warlords grave there in 300 BC

Now should I believe rumors of Alexander's having reached India or believe solid archeological proof of Roruka armies reaching gulf, middle and near east
The people of the IVC did trade heavilly with the middle east through the ancient port of lothal Gujarat, which is why there have been ivc seals and artifacts found in many Arab countries. However, I do not think there are any proper ivc sites in Oman.
 
Likes: Kadi
Jul 2017
510
Sydney
#9
The people of the IVC did trade heavilly with the middle east through the ancient port of lothal Gujarat, which is why there have been ivc seals and artifacts found in many Arab countries. However, I do not think there are any proper ivc sites in Oman.
Yeah! The Oman site is not really an IVC site. It's just a military garrison
 
Likes: Cobra Arbok

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