How did indigenous Peruvians react to the Peruvian War of Independence?

May 2019
138
Earth
Given that Tupac Amaru II's rebellion was still within living memory at the time, what was the reaction of indigenous Peruvians (including those who had not taken part in the prior uprising) toward the Peruvian rebellions against Spain in the 1810s-20s? Was there much participation from indigenous Peruvians on either side?

Yes, I know "indigenous Peruvians" covers a diverse group of peoples with different historical relations toward Spain. I'm using the term because I'm interested in hearing about all indigenous groups in the region during this conflict. I also know that "Peru" at that time covered more land than the modern country of Peru; for the purposes of this question, I would like to focus on the region which became the Republic of Peru.
 

martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,643
Spain
Given that Tupac Amaru II's rebellion was still within living memory at the time, what was the reaction of indigenous Peruvians (including those who had not taken part in the prior uprising) toward the Peruvian rebellions against Spain in the 1810s-20s? Was there much participation from indigenous Peruvians on either side?

Yes, I know "indigenous Peruvians" covers a diverse group of peoples with different historical relations toward Spain. I'm using the term because I'm interested in hearing about all indigenous groups in the region during this conflict. I also know that "Peru" at that time covered more land than the modern country of Peru; for the purposes of this question, I would like to focus on the region which became the Republic of Peru.

The Kingdom of Peru.. El Piru as it was named by Spaniards in 16th Century... it was loyal to the Crown... and most of the natives (indians) supported the King... the Taita (Little Father in Vascuence) as indians named the King...

Perú or El Piru (also what it is named today Bolivia or HIgh Peru) was so Royalist that the first presidents. in the Republic of Peru were Royalist!!! (the same will happen in Mexico).

For example, the first president., Don José de la Mar is a Spanish soldier... seriously injured in the Siege of Saragossa in 1808 (figthing Napoleon´s armies)...during the Peninsular War he was promoted to Coronel... from soldier.. always by merit in action. By King Ferdinand VII´s orders he was sent to Peru in 1815.... and yes.. this spaniard born in Cuenca.. was the first president of the Republic of Peru. Also we have the next president of Peru.. Don Andrés Santa Cruz.. another Royalist fought by the KING against Rebellion.. or the first Foreing Officee´s minister... Don José de Morales y Ugalde... another... royalist!!!!

And the fidelity of Indians.. was legendary.. you can google DON ANTONIO HUACHACA...he swore loyalty to God-Motherland-King.. and he did it.. Still.. in 1839... he was fighting with the Spanish flag...in Peru!!!!

The native´s support to Spain was general from Argentina and Chile to Florida or New Spain.
 
May 2019
138
Earth
The native´s support to Spain was general from Argentina and Chile to Florida or New Spain.
That's definitely an exaggeration; I know there were plenty of indigenous rebellions against the Spanish in the northern part of New Spain (e.g. in the current US southwest and California). And the Mapuche down in Chile weren't terribly friendly towards the Spanish (Arauco War - Wikipedia).

Thanks for the rest of the info though. I did also hear that Peru was a royalist stronghold, but I wasn't sure if that was primarily a criollo/mestizo sentiment, or if it extended to Peru's indigenous communities.
 

martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,643
Spain
That's definitely an exaggeration; I know there were plenty of indigenous rebellions against the Spanish in the northern part of New Spain (e.g. in the current US southwest and California). And the Mapuche down in Chile weren't terribly friendly towards the Spanish (Arauco War - Wikipedia).

Thanks for the rest of the info though. I did also hear that Peru was a royalist stronghold, but I wasn't sure if that was primarily a criollo/mestizo sentiment, or if it extended to Peru's indigenous communities.
I thought you was talking about Independence Wars in 19th Century.. not about 16th Century Wars... Araucanos (or Mapuches as you like) were Royalist and they fought on behalf Fernando VII against rebels!...

In Peru (and High Peru what today rebels name Bolivia) most of the royalist were the natives or Indians. (as in Chili) or in Florida
 
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mark87

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Jan 2014
2,078
Santiago de Chile
The Chilean natives were split on the side they took (Royalist/Loyalist or Independence/Criollo). A majority however sided with the Spanish during the war of Independence.
Peru was much more of a loyalist stronghold as they had a premier position on the continent and second only to Mexico in the hemisphere, Lima was effectively in charge of all the other colonies of the region. Natives often merely chose the side they felt gave them more in these struggles. There does seem to be some evidence some Peruvian natives sided with the independence cause.
 
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May 2019
138
Earth
I thought you was talking about Independence Wars in 19th Century.. not about 16th Century Wars... Araucanos (or Mapuches as you like) were Royalist and they fought on behalf Fernando VII against rebels!...

In Peru (and High Peru what today rebels name Bolivia) most of the royalist were the natives or Indians. (as in Chili) or in Florida
I was just talking about the region I'm familiar with: northern New Spain (principally northern Mexico and southwest USA). I know there was indigenous resistance against Spain (and it's successor Mexico) in that area during the 18th and 19th century, not just in the 16th century. Interesting to hear though about the Mapuche taking the royalist side in the Latin American independence wars, thanks for that info.

Peru was much more of a loyalist stronghold as they had a premier position on the continent and second only to Mexico in the hemisphere, Lima was effectively in charge of all the other colonies of the region. Natives often merely chose the side they felt gave them more in these struggles. There does seem to be some evidence some Peruvian natives sided with the independence cause.
Given what you and martin have said so far, I find it interesting that Peru's indigenous populations, primarily those who had recently suffered defeat in Tupac Amaru II's rebellion against the Spanish, would have suddenly taken Spain's side in the fighting...
 

martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,643
Spain
I was just talking about the region I'm familiar with: northern New Spain (principally northern Mexico and southwest USA). I know there was indigenous resistance against Spain (and it's successor Mexico) in that area during the 18th and 19th century, not just in the 16th century. Interesting to hear though about the Mapuche taking the royalist side in the Latin American independence wars, thanks for that info.



Given what you and martin have said so far, I find it interesting that Peru's indigenous populations, primarily those who had recently suffered defeat in Tupac Amaru II's rebellion against the Spanish, would have suddenly taken Spain's side in the fighting...

Well, I don´t know if you can speak Spanish... you can read here (Los araucanos en el proceso de independencia de Chile, Araucanians in the Chilean independence process). Although it is a Chilean book... explained reasons why Araucanos (or Mapuches, as you prefer) and american natives in general, massively supported the Royalist cause.

Even today, in a cinema as politically manipulated as the communist Venezuelan Chaves and Maduro .. the Realist Army is portrayed as a force composed of Indians, blacks, mulattos, mestizos and a few peninsulares ... against the Rebels.. consisted by Spaniards born in America... Criollos.


Taita means Little father (padrecito) in Vascuence (a languague was spoken in northern Spain in some areas)... for natives, the King was a kind of "Father" because he protected the Indians against the "bad men" (Criollos).
¡Viva el Taita! said the indians...
 
May 2019
138
Earth
Thanks for the information martin. I can read some Spanish, so I'll check out the links you posted. It's interesting to hear what you're saying about indigenous attitudes toward Spain in South America, compared to what I know about some groups responses to Spanish colonisation on the western frontiers in North America. I know that in Mexico, for example, there was indigenous and mestizo involvement in the independence armies, as well as in the royalist forces. It seems the situation up there was not as clear cut as the impression you've given me of indigenous attitudes in South America, which (from what you say) seem to have been primarily royalist...
 
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