How do you get a lot of Russians to settle in the southern parts of the Russian Empire?

Jan 2014
1,083
Rus
Agricultural colonization is powerful thing which helps to transform conquered lands to loyal counties. Russian government has understood it in the end of XIX century and begun to promote settlement of russian peasants in the numerous heterogenous outskirts. In the south (caucasian) direction situation was perfect northward of Caucasian mountains. There fertile plains were ideal for peasants of southern Russia. Native nomadic tribes were defeated by state troops and couldnt contrapose anything against outnumbering wave of new settlers.

But there were many troubles in Caucausian mountains and souther. The main troubles were: 1.nature 2.enemies 3.allies

Enemies
The really dangerous were only tribes of robbers in north Caucasus mountains. But during Caucasian War they were defeated. Some was expelled to Turkey, some blocked and divided by fortresses and Cossack's military settlements. So they couldnt much prevent Russian colonization. (But problem wasnt finally solved as with Indians in USA, so in XX century some regions were destabilized).

Allies
Tsar's government recognized Christian folks of Georgians and Armenians as allies (Although it appeared later that Georgians werent so). So it tried dont rude them and dont to constrain them by colonists. Otherwise government gave them land for colonization. Aspecially for Armenians. There were projects to concentrate Armenians from whole Turkey inside Russian borders or near to create stronghold against Ottomans. So plans of Russian colonization here got strong concurent in the face of plans of Armenian colonization. (Modern Armenia is a result of these plans). Moreover government recognized grants of armenian and georgian aristocracy and gave them high ranks in imperial administration. Its obvious that these people being friendly for Russia at whole wouldnt like idea of Russian colonization

Nature
Classical Russian agricultural settler in Caucasus was peasant from South Russia (including Ukraine). He was inborn grain farmer and bread eater. Landhungry mountain valleys were completely unsuitable for him. They were even worse than irrigated oasises of Middle Asia. There he could to grow cotton, to sell it whole, to buy grain and to bake bread. Here he had to grow some trees, grape, to breed sheeps and goats. Russian usually breed goats and sheeps. But goat for Russians is a semi-dirty animal close to pigs for Semits and so occupies very minor role. Sheeps were widespread, but they used for meat and wool and never were milking. Selling fruits and grapes is quite difficult too, if you are living in remote valley. Russian could grow grain in the mountains, but it needed much land. Thats why Russians couldnt be numerous here.

The only type of Russian colonists that pretty fitted to mountain life in Caucasus were religious sectarians (Molokans etc) who elaped hether from military draft in first half of XIX century. But they werent numerous.
 
Likes: Futurist
May 2014
19,746
SoCal
Excellent analysis, Slavon! Anyway, how would you have expected eastern Anatolia, Constantinople, and the Straits to fare in a scenario where Russia would have avoided Bolshevism and remained in WWI until the very end--thus acquiring these territories? Also, what about Mongolia and Xinjiang in the event that Russia would have ever conquered them?
 
Jan 2014
1,083
Rus
Anyway, how would you have expected eastern Anatolia, Constantinople, and the Straits to fare in a scenario where Russia would have avoided Bolshevism and remained in WWI until the very end--thus acquiring these territories?
Most likely they would be joined to Russia.But i think this wasnt good. Russia could stop to be Russian state by such way.
 
Jan 2014
1,083
Rus
continuation

There were only two places in Transcaucasia useful for widespread acricultural colonization. 1.Rioni river's plain (Colchis) in the west 2.Kura river's plain in the East.

Settlers werent deployed in Rioni's plain. I dont no why exactly. Supposedly because it was populated by Georgians already.

Otherwise in Kura's plain. There were some dry and sparse populated areas. Mugan Steppe was one of them. Plan to irrigate Mugan for cotton fields and to populate it by russian settlers appeared in the begining of XX century. This thing was also important because Mugan lied on the borders with Persia. Of course it was difficult. Russian peasants werent familiar with irrigation and cotton and environment was hostile. But in 1917 several dozens of Russian settlers lived here already. It was half of population of this area.

During Civil War in Russia they formed Mugan Republic (It wasnt pure Russian but Russian-Native with some predomination of Russians). But it was captured by Azerbayjan and later included to Azer.SSR. But some Russins lived here till 1990s. In case when Russia "avoided Bolshevism" this colony would be much more large, surely.

There were bunch of other Russian agricultural colonies across whole Transcaucasia (by the way there were several German's too). But all of them were even smaller. Part of them were destroyed by natives during Civil War, others strangled by Soviet national republics. Last remnants leave after 1991. There were information that several villages of sectarians were existing in the begining of 2000s. But i think that now they fled too.

I wrote that Russians werent fit for agricalture in mountains. But many things, which were brought by russian peasants, appeared to be usefull here. For example many kinds of vegetables. Such as cabbage,potato, i am not sure but looks like tomato too. Various agrotechnics: crop rotation, iron plow, etc.
 
Likes: Futurist
May 2014
19,746
SoCal
All places in Detroits police and adminisration are "only for blacks", arent they?
Highly unlikely considering that Detroit currently has a white mayor. Also, any attempt to limit these offices to blacks would almost certainly be struck down by the US Supreme Court as being unconstitutional.

Most likely they would be joined to Russia.But i think this wasnt good. Russia could stop to be Russian state by such way.
There wouldn't be enough non-Russians there to significantly diminish Russia's Russian character, though. Also, for the record, I was asking about Russian colonization of these areas in that post of mine.
 
Jan 2014
1,083
Rus
Besides agricultural there were administrative, military and industrial colonization.

Russian administration of whole Caucasus was established in Tiflis (Tbilisi).Although it was capital of one of Georhgian small states, local population was predominatly Armenian. Under imperial rule town rapidly grew. In the main due to inflow of Russians and Georgians. So in the begining of XX century Russian, Georgian and Armenian communities became near equal in number.
After 1917 Tiflis became Georgian capital so Georgian share naturally still more grew, but Russian and Armenian declined. If there were no Revolution in Russia, then i think Russian share would be still 30%. Or may be if Armenians leaked to some new Armenian formation than city would become 50/50 Russian-Georgian.

Administrative center of second level were stationed in Baku,Erivan,Suhum,Elisavetpol, Batum, Kars, Kutais. But they didnt give big Russian influx. Number of officials was small in Tsar's administration compared to European countries. And secondly some part of officials were native (in contrast with Middle Asia were only community level positions could be occupied by natives). For example in Elisavetpol and Erivan were only 3-4 thousands of Russians (10% of population). Thats was fullness of administrative migration. Although of course these 3-4 thousand of Russians occupied best places of towns.

Troops stationed in region were predominately Russian. So some areas had big prescense of Russians due to it. But not many who of them settled here forever.

Industrial colonization was much more numerous than administrative. There were no large-scale smart industry here. Because population was backward, logistics bad and valuable raw materials were absent. Except one. There were found large deposits of oil. So was established large Baku's oilfield. It demanded vast values of labor forces. So many Russian workers arrived here among others. Toward 1917 Baku outgrown Tiflis (more than 200.000 people). Russian share was near 30% here like in Tiflis. There were some other punkts related with oil industry, like port Batum. They had share of Russian population too.

There were no state's promotion of Russian industrial settlement unlike agricultural. Due to prescence of Russian authority Russian workers had some criminal protection, but no more. Oil facilities belonged to Nobel(Sweden), Armenian, Tatarian etc merchants. Russian merchants were in minority. So there werent protection for Russian colonization from these side too.

After 1917 and during Soviet rule Russian administrative colonization still more reduced. Main part of administrative vacations were occupied by native staff. Russians mainly concerned technical positions: teachers, engineers, medics, etc. Flow of Russian industrial migration continued during Soviet rule, but it wasnt very big and was heading mainly to several cities.

Most cunning were Armenians. They prevented construction of heavy industry in Armenian SSR, administration here were predominately Armenian too. So Armenia was Soviet Republic with the least share of Russians. Russian share never exceed 5% here.

If no Revolution in 1917 than Russian urban colonization would be some more keen in Transcaucasia. But not in big degree. Some more adminsration would be Russian, some more workers. But Russians would be minority here anyway.
 
Likes: Futurist
Jan 2014
1,083
Rus
New type of migration appeared in second half of XX century - climatical or recreational. People begun to migrate to places where climate is good for living, not for farming. Futurist wrote about quarter of White Americans living on the southern borders of USA. This is result of such migration.

This kind of migration begun to appear in USSR too. Of course in much smaller scale.

But in USSR this process coincided with another. Since 1960 Moscow begun to give more rights to national republics. So local Russians begun more and more get under ethnic administrative and criminal pressure. So they begun to leave southern regions otherwise. Now situation is quite difficult in Kavkazian Mineral Waters which always considered as resort. Only Krasnodar reamain to be Russian stronghold and attract many migrants from the north.

So if Russian rule saved after 1917 than large Russian migrations could appeared southward of Kavkazian ridge in the end of XX century. Like it was in southern parts of USA...And as i know Americans dont settle in all parts of southern USA becuse of Mexican migrants.
 
Likes: Futurist