How exactly did the British win the Battles of Plassey and Buxar?

May 2013
The abode of the lord of the north
Let us not drive this thread too, in the direction of Aryan movements. We already have a plethora of threads in the said topic. As to the OP question, Plassey was decided by the betrayal of Mir Jafar Khan and also by the sudden rains which rendered Nawab's artillery useless.
Oct 2015
Oh sure, there are no Aryan invaders or Aryan migrants into India. All the Hindus and their leaders are of the original indigenous Indians, Dalits. This is the belief of the Ultra-extremist Hindus. LOL!
Interesting discussion of 'we" and "others". Some differences are clear, whether it matters or not is another issue.

The Indo-Aryans had no memory of their coming from outside the subcontinent. This condition lasted for about 28 centuries till the British came and wrote history in 18th century. For them otherness expressed when they got in touch with pre-existing occupational groups from Harappan civilization.

On the other hand, Mughals, and even Sultans before them, did have a clear / distinct awareness right from the beginning that their roots were elsewhere. Ghanzni who made raided India several times, was the first to get his designation as "Sultan" approved from Khalif. The last one - Aurangzeb also sent gifts to Mecca but they were not accepted because he had imprisoned his father. Only later his gifts were accepted. So there was a feeling of "we/otherness" and there is also some sense of pan-islamism which continues. Today, these feelings are less strong among Indian Muslims.

Christians in India, on the other hand, are more integrated in Indian identity. While there is natural respect & deference for the Pope, there is no strong sense of submission to him. The feeling of "we/otherness" among Indian Christians is not all that strong as far as territorial boundaries are concerned. Today it expresses sometimes as anti-Aryan (anti-Caste, or pro-Dravidian) attitudes because of the type of ethnic-groups that evangelization process mined.
Likes: Zanis
Oct 2015
Sorry. I did not see the objections to extra-curricular comments before penning the above.

Will try to make up by giving factual data on the main subject.
Oct 2015
The British Indian Army had certain strategic advantages over Indian armies, including the Mughals / ex-Mughal. This enabled them to defeat Indian armies even though outnumbered 1:10.

Sake Dean Mahomed (1759–1851) was a Muslim associated with British Indian Army. He migrated to England once the captain he had worked for returned to England. He published 'Travels of Dean Mahomed' published in c. 1794. [1] Dean wrote:

"so long as the Sepoy's maintain their formations, which they call 'lines,' they are like an immovable volcano spewing artillery and rifle fire like unrelenting hail on the enemy, and they are seldom defeated."

The technique Dean mentions was simple. The British Indian sepoys formed lines - one behind the other. The front row will fire at the charging cavalry of the enemy. Having discharged this line would move backwards to re-load the rifle, a process which could take a minute or so. Simultaneously, the row of sepoys immediately behind will come to front and fire. So if the lines were six deep, they could fire six times in a minute even though each rifle could fire only once per minute.

Since fighting technique of Indians emphasized cavalry charge - horse mounted, with swords or spears - for sepoys they were large & easy targets. Even if the sepoy could not kill the soldier, he could at least get the horse down disabling the charge.

A cavalry charging from say 600 meters away could be easily decimated by this technique. It would take about 2 minutes to reach the sepoy lines to inflict first kill. But during those 2 minutes, the sepoy lines could shoot them 12 times - and they did not need to even have a precise aim.

Add to this the fact that British training was more formal & rigorous. And guns were technologically superior to Indian manufactured.

In Plassey & Buxar, there were some specific reasons as well, which I will cover separately


[1] Sake Dean Mahomed - Wikipedia

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