The battle does not work with the official numbers. Even if we assume most of Masinissa's foot were actually Roman, giving Scipio 28k total in the legions and Alae, that would mean 8k Hastati. If the Hastati were significantly outnumbered by the 12k mercenaries, Polybius would certainly have stated as such. He does not. Further, given the mercenaries were said to be more skillful and mobile than the green legionaries, the Hastati would have been overlapped and cut down. They were not. Given the available info, we have to assume the numbers of Hastati and mercenaries were about equal.Appian (Punic Wars 41) says Scipio had 23,000 Roman, Latin and Italian infantry and 1500 cavalry in the battle; plus the Numidians.
Apologies for stating Appian, not Livy. My bad .I can't see this scenario as any more convincing than the other version. It's Livy (30.33.5) who actually has a Macedonian "legion" arrayed in the Carthaginian second line. This is not convincing either. Just how Philip might have spared such at this time is more than perplexing!
So what do you think of my hypothesis on actual numbers present? If you have better suggestions I'd be grateful.With a maximum of 40k total, with 12k of those mercenaries, the rest of Hannibal's army composition can only be theorised. However, we can make an educated guess. Carthage does have a history of being able to supply a contingent of 10k, and even if the city did not have a standing army, it certainly would have guardsmen for wall and gate defense, patrolling streets, and civic ceremonial duties. It would not be unlikely to suggest that if 10k foot was present, 1000 cavalry would also be available, a mirror/shadow of eastern kingdoms. Appian stated that 4000 Macedonians were present, unlikely, but there could have been 4000 allies fighting in a Hellenistic or Spanish style, ie sword and javelin. That gives a second line of 14k. The 3rd line is said to have consisted of Italian campaign veterans, which I don't believe for a second. If Hasdrubal was unable to travel to Italy be sea, Hannibal is not going to be able to send a smaller army in the opposite direction. However, 10k veterans from Spain could have been present. To this 37k, we can add 2000 Numidian cavalry.
Let's assume you are right, with Scipio's army being 29k infantry max, and received wisdom states you are, how many Hastati do you believe faced 12000 mercenaries of Hannibal's first line?You really need to read the sources. Scipio did not requisition 400 troop transports; he requisitioned boats of whatever kind from Sicily. What was gettable. Just as was his his requisition of troops or kind from Italy. It is not conceivable that he levied infantry from Sicily. That is fanciful speculation. This already comprises your numbers before we get to your rationale based on Hannibal's first line.
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