How Ummayads were Arab supramacist ?

Jul 2018
63
North America
I have heard this claims from muslims of south asia who support Abbadis more.

How Ummayads got this label ?

And how Abbasids differ from Ummayads ?
 

macon

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
4,194
Slovenia, EU
Check capital cities. Ummayads- Damascus, Abbasids- Baghdad. Second were more Persian oriented, capital already points on that.
 

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,792
Republika Srpska
The Umayyads have a reputation of Arab supremacism because they were Arab supremacists. Non-Arabs were treated as second-class citizens, and were generally kept separate from the ruling Arab elite. The Umayyads wanted to keep Islam among the Arabs and generally didn't support conversion. However, many conversions did happen and as time went on, the number of non-Arab Muslims rose. This didn't lead to any new privileges, and non-Arab Muslims remained below Arabs. In fact, Umayyad governor Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf even forced some converts to return to their original religion in order to extract the jizya tax from them. The same governor suppressed the use of Persian language. In fact, around 700 under Caliph Abd al-Malik the Umayyads ordered that all administrative bussiness must be conducted in Arabic, rather than in any other language. In fact, the Arab supremacy that was promoted by the Umayyads led to widespread discontent and was an instrumental part in the Abassid Revolution and the end of the Umayyad Caliphate. However, it should be noted that not all Arabs were equal under the Umayyads. Those Arabs closer to Syria had more rights than those further away. So, the Umayyads weren't really popular with many Arabs as well.
 
May 2015
1,301
Germany
In fact, the Arab supremacy that was promoted by the Umayyads led to widespread discontent and was an instrumental part in the Abassid Revolution and the end of the Umayyad Caliphate.
This and the fact that the Umayyads were considered as too secular:
 

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,792
Republika Srpska
Check capital cities. Ummayads- Damascus, Abbasids- Baghdad. Second were more Persian oriented, capital already points on that.
The Abbasids, at least during their early period, were not really Persian oriented. The Abbasids, starting from al-Mansur, promoted Arabic culture, translated works from Greek into Arabic and basically tried to create a new, universal Islamic culture based not on Arab nationality, but on Arabic language.
 

Dreamhunter

Ad Honorem
Jun 2012
7,505
Malaysia
Well, they can't be 'supremacists' anymore now. If they really ever were. Unless they want to risk being crushed by their own so called 'supremacism'. Becos Arabs are heavily outweighed by non-Arabs in the Islamic world now.
 
Sep 2015
1,811
England
In fact, the Arab supremacy that was promoted by the Umayyads led to widespread discontent and was an instrumental part in the Abassid Revolution and the end of the Umayyad Caliphate.
This and the fact that the Umayyads were considered as too secular:
Surely it was also due to the defeat at the Battle of Tours?
 

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,792
Republika Srpska
Battle of Tours pales in significance compared to the 717 siege of Constantinople. This siege severely weakened the Umayyad state and even allowed the Byzantines to go on the offensive, though the Umayyads were eventually able to reverse Byzantine gains.
 

Tsar

Ad Honorem
Apr 2015
2,010
Serbia
I think the main reason may be in their stance towards conversion to Islam. Under the Umayyad reign, the mawali (non-Arab Muslims) were denied privileges of Muslims (like not paying the kharaj). The rebellions of the mawali, like that of al-Ashras ibn ʿAbd Allah as-Sulami in Khorasan, that coincided with foreign invasion (in this case, of Turks), resulted with loss of territory and embarrassment. It is significant that the leaders encouraged Ummayad governors to be firm against mawali demands, fearing that they would not be able to meet financial demands imposed by the government if they lost their people. The tradition holds that Caliph ʿUmar II was unlike most Ummayads, being somehow a champion of Muslim equality; however, it seems quite improbable.

The denial of conversion to Islam was used by the enemies of the Umayyads to present them as enemies of Islam and their enemies like pious Muslims. One must be warned that most of the sources of tradition concerning the Ummayads got its final form under the ʿAbassids.

There are many other un-Islamic things ascribed to the house of Ummayads. One can note that there are literary works that deal exclusively with Ummayad crimes. An example of such work is Risala fi bani Umayya, written by al-Jahiz. Often did the writers quote a verse of Qu'ran the tree cursed in Qu'ran (ash-shajara al-malʿuna fi 'l-qur'an; XVII, 60) when referring to them.

As one may know, the Hashimid branch (to which Muhammad ibn ʿAbd Allah belonged) and the Umayyad branch of the Quraysh tribe were enemies before Muhammad ibn ʿAbd Allah was born (I believe many know of the story of siamese twins, Hashim and ʿAbd Shams, sons of ʿAbd Manaf). Therefore, Abu Sufyan, the father of the first Umayyad caliph (Caliph Muʿawiya I), was shown as the leader of the Quraysh opposition to Islam in Mecca, and the leader of the armies that attacked the army of Medina at Uhud and al-Khandaq. One might know the story by which mother of Caliph Muʿawiya (Hind bint ʿUtba) chewed on the liver of Hamza ibn ʿAbd al-Muttalib, who was an uncle of Muhammad ibn Abd ʿAllah, at Uhud. The Umayyads were referred to as at-tulaka', which was supposed to denote that they became property of Muhammad ibn Abd ʿAllah after he conquered Mecca, but he magnanimously chose to set them free (tulaka' meaning liberated ones). Muʿawiya is frequently shown as a scheming and capable man, whose role in murder of Caliph ʿUthman is often implied.

As for the refusal of the title of caliph, there are multiple alleged reasons. The first and foremost reason was that Muʿawiya introduced hereditary succession, which was contrary to the established practice of electoral Caliphate, like in Rashidun times. It is also ascribed to the Umayyads that they changed the title of khalifat rasul allah (deputy of the God's Prophet) into khalifat allah (Deputy of God), motivated by arrogance.

Individual caliphs, like Caliph Yazid, were known as drunkards. Caliph Yazid was infamous for bombarding Medina and Mecca with catapults, practically destroying Kaʿba. An Umayyad army besieged Mecca ten years later (led by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf). Killing of al-Husayn ibn ʿAli, the grandson of Muhammad ibn ʿAbd Allah, as well as the largest part of his family and supporters in Karbala' is usually ascribed to the Umayyads.

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My principal source for all of this is: G. R. Hawting, "Umayyads", The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume X: T-U, Leiden-Brill 2000, pp. 840-847.
 

Ichon

Ad Honorem
Mar 2013
3,729
Early Arabs were proud to be of the People of the Prophet and there was alot of resistance on how exactly to follow the Prophets injunction that all Muslims were equal. Obviously not all people are equal and there was still status within Arab tribes and how close of an association someone had with the Prophet even multiple generations later and since vast majority of those people with traceable association to the Prophet were Arabs the Umayyads social structure also evolved due to the necessity of ruling far flung regions.