- Jun 2007
Which state you mentioned wrote clearly like this?There are indeed plenty of writings where the Viets attempt to establish a unique identity, but I am not convinced how this significantly differs from other "Chinese regimes" such as Liao, Xixia, or even Dong Wu and Shu Han, which also speaks of different customs from the "central state". There simply weren't clearly defined nations.
Liu Gong was a Southern Han emperor, father of the prince who was killed during the first battle of Bach Dang (939) by Ngo Quyen.
Zhao Jie was the second-in-command Song general who participated in the ill-fated campaign against the Ly dynasty, he wasn't killed, but didn't achieve anything anyway.
Sugetu (Tọa Độ) was the commander of Yuan force who attacked Trần dynasty from Champa, he was killed by a Southern Song subordinate or by accident, depends upon the accounts.
Omar (known in Vietnamese as Ô Mã Nhi) was the general who was captured at the second battle of Bạch Đằng (1288) in which the entire Yuan fleets perished, almost all high commanders were captured and later killed.
The idea that throughout the whole period, Dai Viet under different dynasties were able to smash many Northern invasion. The upcoming later Le dynasty would soon join those past dynasties as the legitimate ruler of this land.
I don't know if Xixia, Liao or Jin wrote such a poem to claim their legitimate rule in the land of "Northern China".
Vietnamese historians also wrote Former Le, Later Le and such, but those are dynastic names and are distinguished from the name of the state. Never had they mixed them together.We actually have the same instance in Chinese history where two succeeding dynasties had the same dynastic name, "Zhao", "Wei", "Yan", "Han", just to name a few. The only difference is that posterity added the term "former" and "later" into it. Vietnam is different in that it existed longer, but the concept of a state name based on location, at least initially, appears similar and that's why Viet regimes claimed successor to Nam Viet.
Tang culture still had a portent influence on the state long after this dynasty had vanished.This seem to have been the case by the Ming dynasty because of the passage of time, and the constant northern invasions which forged a Viet identity, but one wonders whether this is in fact the case during the Song and how much Dai Viet is different from Xixia or the Liao in this respect.
A separate identity of course long existed before the Ming times, here is one comment by Le Van Huu (1230–1322):
Rough translation: The former lord Ngo (Ngo Quyen) was able to employ the newly assembled army of our Viet to smash Luu Hoang Thao (a Souther Han Han prince), formed a kingdom and declared himself king, as such the Northerners did not dare to come back. Thus it could be said that his rage pacified the people, he had good strategems and potent as a warrior. Although he only established himself as a king and was not able to claim the "emperor" title, as well as possessed his own calenda, yet our Viet state was continued due to him.