If the Byzantine Empire would have survived up to the present-day, what it look like right now?

Jan 2016
1,114
Victoria, Canada
#36
It had Greek as the official language since Heraclius, no?
No, that's a persistent myth, without much to support it. The Roman Empire never really had anything resembling an official language in the first place, and that didn't change in the 7th century. Heraclius (full name Flavius Heraclius) still used Latin titles, used Latin on his coins, and employed Latin in ceremonies both secular and religious, as would all Emperors up to the late-11th century. Latin was, additionally, still regularly used in an official capacity in the Exarchates (i.e. Italy and Africa) throughout the 7th century, and possibly maintained a presence in (at least Constantinopolitan) high law into the 8th or 9th, most of the Justinianic code being written in the language (and surviving to be translated into Greek by Basil I and Leo VI in the 880's and 90's). Greek was the main language of court and regular administration in Constantinople under the Emperor, but that had been the case since at least the late-6th century, or even earlier depending on which standard you go by. The most notable innovation of Heraclius was his official use of the title of Basileus (Emperor/King), informally used for centuries -- not as a replacement for any other title, mind you, or even used on coins -- which likely had more to do with his victory over the Persian Basileus Basileion and association with the Hebrew Basileis of the Old Testament than any wider linguistic shift.

A coin of Heraclius inscribed with Deus adiuta Romanis, or "God help the Romans" (the numismatic formula would be repeated by his son and grandson, Constans II and Constantine IV):



A mosaic of Constantine IV and co-Emperor brothers with Latin legend in Ravenna, c. 680's:

 

stevev

Ad Honorem
Apr 2017
3,062
Las Vegas, NV USA
#38
The Byzantine Empire would first have had to defeat the Crusaders who established the Latin Empire and then the Turks. It would then occupy the territories more or less held by the Ottomans in reality. As a "Greater Greece" with its capital in Constantinople it would survive until WWI as a declining Christian power in the modern world. Postwar it would follow the fate of Turkey, and survive as a Christian power in Anatolia . As such it would have had different relations with Europe but not much different. It still would be competing with Rome and there would be similar wars as those with the Ottomans. Europe's love of warfare would not be much different.
 
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stevev

Ad Honorem
Apr 2017
3,062
Las Vegas, NV USA
#40
Why single out Europe for "loving warfare"? Almost every part of the world that had even vaguely organised communities engaged in warfare on a near-constant basis for much of human history.
Yes, but didn't Europeans like to think they were more civilized than the rest of the world?