Imjin War

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,578
United States
#21
No. This quote is "kaksadongrok" in 1868.

The article is a report by the Navy of Chungcheong Province in 1868.

Unbelievable information, however, is said to have a case in which "Shin Kijeon" was called "Hwajeon" during the late Joseon Dynasty.

And "Hwajeon juk" and "Hwajeon ki" are probably what you think.
Ah, thanks, that's useful. Do you have a link the original source or anything?

Well I suspect the term hwajon probably was sometimes used to refer to rockets as well as incendiary arrows considering that was the term used in China and the list of things you provided.
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,578
United States
#22
As far as I know field artillery was rare in Korea because the mountainous terrain made it very difficult to move around. There are a few instances of artillery used on land during the Imjin War, such as large shell-firing taewangu mortars used against the Japanese inside Kyongju and the use of the hyonja cannon firing incendiary bolts near P'yongyang.

Lots of heavy artillery was used on ships, in fortifications, and sometimes during sieges.
 
Last edited:

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,578
United States
#23
Here are some Korean cannons:


These giant arrows would have been better than roundshot at piercing ships' hulls and probably wooden buildings too. I suspect they were sometimes fitted with incendiary material like oil soaked cloth. The cannons could fire these around 1000-1300 yards or so maximum.



This is a medium-sized chung-wangu, but probably very similar looking to the large ones used at Kyongju. It was mounted on some kind of rest or fulcrum, but so far as I know we don't know for sure what it was like.
 
Dec 2018
25
East
#24
Ah, thanks, that's useful. Do you have a link the original source or anything?

Well I suspect the term hwajon probably was sometimes used to refer to rockets as well as incendiary arrows considering that was the term used in China and the list of things you provided.
Let me introduce some more records.

화전
사서(史書)에 보면 불화살이 군중에 쓰이기 시작한 것은 오래되었다. 다만 《자치통감강목(資治通鑑綱目)》 분주(分註)로 고찰한다면 옛날의 불화살은 지금과 같지 않았다. 대개 옛날에 말한 화전은 화살 끝에 기름을 담은 조그만 바가지를 달아서 적진과 누(樓)나 노(櫓)의 인화될 만한 곳에 쏘면 화살이 그 위에 적중될 때 바가지가 부서져 기름이 흘러나오고, 계속 불에 달군 쇠화살을 그곳에 쏘면 불이 일어나니, 그 제조법이 주밀하지 못했다.
우리나라에서는 평시에 화전을 쓰는데 신기전(神機箭)이라고 부른다. 단지 변란을 알리는 데 쓸 뿐 불태우는 데는 사용하지 않는다. 그 쓰임이 큰 관건이 되지 못하고 오직 수전(水戰)에서만 이것을 적의 배집[舡篷]에 쏘아서 능히 불을 일으키나 그리 많이 쓰지는 않았다. 임진 난리에 명 나라 군사가 평양성의 왜적을 공격하여 함락할 때 전적으로 대포 화전을 썼다. 그 제조법은 우리나라 신기전과 비슷한데, 그 화살대가 심히 길다. 화살촉에서 2, 3치 되는 곳에 약통을 달아매고 그 좌우에 자그마한 불이 묶여 있다. 그래서 이것이 떨어진 곳에 화염이 함께 폭발하여 연기가 하늘을 가리므로 적이 눈을 뜨지 못하게 된다. 화전은 승리를 거두는 묘한 무기로서 여러 대포에 뒤지지 않는다.

Hwajeon
In the librarian, it's been a long time since fire-arrow began to be used in the crowd.
However, considering the busyness of <Jachitonggam>, the fire-arrow saint of ancient times was not the same.
Usually, the old-fashioned wreath had small pots of oil on the tip of an arrow and shot at a place that could ignite the enemy base, a silkworm, or a furnace, and when the arrow hit it, the bag burst and the fire broke out, and the iron fired continuously, which led to fire.
Usually, the old-fashioned wreath had small pots of oil on the tip of an arrow and shot at a place that could ignite the enemy base, a silkworm, or a furnace, and when the arrow hit it, the bag burst and the fire broke out, and the hot-iron-arrow shot continuously, which led to fire.

In Korea, hwajeon is used in peacetime and is called Shinjijeon. It is only used to signal an insurrection, not to burn.
Its use was not a big concern and only in naval battles did it fire easily but not much.

In the Imjin War, when the Ming army attacked and took over the Pyongyang castle, it used artillery fire entirely.
The manufacturing method is similar to Sinjijeon in our country, but the arrowhead is very long. A small fire is tied to the left and right of the arrowheads, two or three inches from the arrowheads.
So the fire explodes in the distance, blocking the smoke from opening the enemy's eyes.
The wreath is an odd weapon of victory that is second to many guns.

서애집
한국고전종합DB

this article was written by Yoo Seong-ryong, a prime minister during the Imjin War.

and according to unreliable information

It literally means a fire arrow, but it also means a rocket weapon system developed in China around the 13th century. a Chinese word that is virtually the closest to the word 'rocket'
...
After the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, the Joseon Dynasty often referred to Sinjijeeon as a hwajeon.
...
나무위키_화전
https://namu.wiki/w/화전

It may be useful information for you. :)
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,578
United States
#25
Ah thanks. So that does verify that the term hwajon could refer to a shingijon.

But incendiary arrows were also used during the Choson period, right?
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,578
United States
#26
Yeah the incendiary arrows were still used and sometimes called songnyu hwajon (석류화전/石硫火箭), I don't know if they were always called that.
 
Dec 2018
25
East
#27
Yeah the incendiary arrows were still used and sometimes called songnyu hwajon (석류화전/石硫火箭), I don't know if they were always called that.
I don't know Fire-Arrow must to say Songnyu hwajun in Joseon dynesty.

But here's more information that'll be useful to you.

동래(東萊)에 있는 수영(水營)의 화약고(火藥庫)에 불이 나 화약(火藥) 1만 3천 3백 83근 8냥쭝, 화관(火罐) 52항(缸), 화전(火箭) 2백 병(柄), 석류전(石榴箭) 1백 8개가 전부 남김없이 불타버렸습니다.

The gunpowder at the naval base in Dongnae is on fire.

The gunpowder 13383 geon8 nyangjung, 52 jar wreaths, 200 bottles of Songnyu jon, all burned down.

※geon (근)
1geon = 600g

※nyangjung(냥쭝)
a measure of the weight of Chinese medicine, gold, silver, etc. ten times the amount of money

긱사등록한국고전종합DB 모바일

1890 Joseon navy report.
 
Last edited:

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,578
United States
#28
Nice. This is one type of source I don't have much of, rosters and actual lists of equipment. It lists 200 "fire arrows" and 108 "songnyu (rock sulfur) arrows".
 
Dec 2018
25
East
#30


This is a medium-sized chung-wangu, but probably very similar looking to the large ones used at Kyongju. It was mounted on some kind of rest or fulcrum, but so far as I know we don't know for sure what it was like.
It was used in the Battle of Ulsan in 1598.

조선왕조실록 선조 31년 무술(1598) 1월 1일(정해)
울산에서의 승전보를 접반사 이덕열이 아뢰다

이 부총(李副總)의 【이여매(李如梅).】 접반사(接伴使) 이덕열(李德悅)이 치계하였다.

“본월 22일 밤에 대군(大軍)이 일제히 출동하였는데, 이 부총이 선봉으로 나아갔습니다. 23일 오시(午時)에 선봉군이 적진에서 20리 되는 곳에서 왜적과 만났는데 중국군이 용맹을 떨쳐 학익진(鶴翼陣)으로 습격하여 왜적 4백여 급을 베었습니다. 24일 새벽녘에 성 아래로 진격하여 다가가서 여러 종류의 화포(火砲)를 한꺼번에 발사하니, 그 소리가 천지를 진동하고 연기와 불꽃이 허공에 솟구쳤습니다. 성 안에 있는 왜적들의 집에서는 일시에 불길이 치솟았고 북풍이 크게 불어 불길이 덮치자 적의 무리들이 우왕좌왕하면서 토굴 속으로 도망쳐 들어갔습니다. 모든 군사가 성을 함락시키고 진격하여 토굴을 공격했으나 토굴이 겹겹으로 되어 있고 석축(石築)이 견고하고 험하기가 비길 데 없어 격파하지 못했습니다. 시험삼아 대완구(大碗口)를 쏘아보았으나 산비탈이 가파르고 높아서 포석(砲石)이 장애를 받아 곧바로 쏠 수가 없어 종일토록 함락시키지 못했습니다.”

The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty
King seonjo 31year, January 1, 1598
Jeobansa(접반사, 接伴使) Lee Duk-yeol reports victory in Ulsan.
Commander(부총) Lee's(Yerun Lee, 이여매, 李如梅) subordinate, Jeobansa Lee Duk-yeol, reported.
On the night of the 22nd of this month, a large army was called in, and General Lee spearhead vanguard.
At 11 to 13 p.m. on 23rd, the Spearhead Unit met with the Japanese enemy 20 ri(리, about 0.4 km ) from the enemy, and the Chinese army attacked Crane wing formation and behead 400 Japanese soldiers.
At dawn on the 24th, he approached the city and fired a variety of gunpowder all at once, and the sound of it reverberated through the sky and smoke and flames shot up into the air.
Flames soared from the homes of Japanese soldiers once inside the castle, and when the wind blew, the enemy soldiers is out of one's mind (translate 우왕좌왕 freely bacause ) and they fled to the cave.
All the soldiers invaded the castle and attacked the cave in advance, but they were unable to defeat it because it was covered in layers of earthenware and its stone shafts were solid and rugged.4
We tried to shoot the Daewongu(대완구, 大碗口), but the mountain slope was steep and high, so we couldn't shoot the stone right away because it was damaged.

# Jeobansa(접반사, 接伴使)
a temporary position in which foreign envoys were entertained.
# 우왕좌왕
I translate 우왕좌왕 freely into "out of one's mind".
because there was no similar word in sight.

I think After all, it was used in Ulsan, but it did not seem to have much effect.
Still, Daewongu could have been used in the sea or Siege Assault other than the Battle of Gyeongju.
 

Similar History Discussions