Internal migration in a surviving Austria-Hungary

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,748
SoCal
#11
Within Hungary this was the trend of internal migration in the decades before 1910, based on the places of birth



The balance of migration, the greener areas had an active balance (migrants went there), the redder/pinkish ones had passive balance (migrants went from there).
Green=areas of immigration, pink=counties and towns sending out population.

Second map, emigration to the USA between 1899-1913.



Generally the population would continue to move to the bigger cities, industrial zones as deaf tuner already pointed it out.
What exactly made northern Croatia and southern Transylvania so attractive for internal migrants? Heavy industry? What else?

Also, I'm presuming that central Hungary was a popular destination for internal migrants to settle in due to its proximity to Budapest, correct?

The migration from rural areas to urban areas certainly makes sense. What years is this data showing?

As for emigration to the USA, it makes sense that, due to Hungary's Magyarization policy, it is the ethnic minorities of Hungary who are going to be disproportionately represented among emigrants. The same was true in Russia and in the Ottoman Empire, if I recall correctly.
 
Oct 2013
13,801
Europix
#12
Within Hungary this was the trend of internal migration in the decades before 1910, based on the places of birth



The balance of migration, the greener areas had an active balance (migrants went there), the redder/pinkish ones had passive balance (migrants went from there).
Green=areas of immigration, pink=counties and towns sending out population.

Second map, emigration to the USA between 1899-1913.



Generally the population would continue to move to the bigger cities, industrial zones as deaf tuner already pointed it out.
Good to see You entering the discussion, Tulun!

If I see correctly, the map You posted say that the biggest increase was at Temesvar. I'm a bit surprised, it's not the first place I would have thought of.

Now that we're to maps, I found one that could help: AH in 1906, showing the towns and railroads. It's interesting to see that most of the territory is well covered, and reasonably uniform.

The only regions less covered are the "extremes": Galicia, Szekelyfold, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Tyrol.

Some how logical in respect to geographic relief, natural resources and distance from the "center". In my opinion.

 
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Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,748
SoCal
#13
Good to see You entering the discussion, Tulun!

If I see correctly, the map You posted say that the biggest increase was at Temesvar. I'm a bit surprised, it's not the first place I would have thought of.

Now that we're to maps, I found one that could help: AH in 1906, showing the towns and railroads. It's interesting to see that most of the territory is well covered, and reasonably uniform.

The only regions less covered are the "extremes": North East and South (Galicia, Szekelyfold, Bosnia, Herzegovina).

Some how logical in respect to geographic relief, natural resources and distance from the "center". In my opinion.

What was so special about Temesvar?

As for A-H railroads, here's a good map for you:

 
Oct 2013
13,801
Europix
#15
Also, I'm presuming that central Hungary was a popular destination for internal migrants to settle in due to its proximity to Budapest, correct?
Not really.

AH was a "multipolar" state, and in Your scenario it would have been even more, IMO. More like US today (=>multipolar) than France, Hungary or England (=>unipolar).

What exactly made northern Croatia and southern Transylvania so attractive for internal migrants? Heavy industry? What else?
Those were "wealthy" regions before the industrial era already (commerce, artisanat, culture, etc.).

Thank You for the map.

But I'm a bit circumspectly doubtful on what the image is suggesting: Wien was the capital, but not the only center of AH. It would be interesting to compare the same map with the equivalent having as departure point Budapest.

And a small piece of history on how relative is our vision: when Mozart had had enough of Work, he didn't went to Berlin, or Paris, or London, but to, Prague.

"Don Giovanni"s premiere was in Prague ...
 
Last edited:
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Apr 2017
1,086
U.S.A.
#16
Temesvar is/was a major trade/travel hub, its located between Belgrade and Budapest and connects to the Danube through rivers/canals. Due to this strategic position it became a large city attracting many migrants (including many germans after Austria took over). It was well developed in comparison to surrounding areas.
 
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Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,748
SoCal
#17
Not really.

AH was a "multipolar" state, and in Your scenario it would have been even more, IMO. More like US today (=>multipolar) than France, Hungary or England (=>unipolar).
Tulun's map clearly shows central Hungary as experiencing much more migration than the surrounding areas, though.

Those were "wealthy" regions before the industrial era already (commerce, artisanat, culture, etc.).
Did these areas remain wealthy after the industrial era began?

Thank You for the map.

But I'm a bit circumspectly doubtful on what the image is suggesting: Wien was the capital, but not the only center of AH. It would be interesting to compare the same map with the equivalent having as departure point Budapest.

And a small piece of history on how relative is our vision: when Mozart had had enough of Work, he didn't went to Berlin, or Paris, or London, but to, Prague.

"Don Giovanni"s premiere was in Prague ...
I agree that it would be nice to see a similar map for Budapest--if such a map actually exists for Budapest, that is.

Also, why did Mozart move to Prague specifically?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
16,748
SoCal
#18
Temesvar is/was a major trade/travel hub, its located between Belgrade and Budapest and connects to the Danube through rivers/canals. Due to this strategic position it became a large city attracting many migrants (including many germans after Austria took over). It was well developed in comparison to surrounding areas.
One can say the same thing about Szeged and Szabadka, no?
 

Tulun

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
3,739
Western Eurasia
#20
What exactly made northern Croatia and southern Transylvania so attractive for internal migrants? Heavy industry? What else?

Also, I'm presuming that central Hungary was a popular destination for internal migrants to settle in due to its proximity to Budapest, correct?

The migration from rural areas to urban areas certainly makes sense. What years is this data showing?

As for emigration to the USA, it makes sense that, due to Hungary's Magyarization policy, it is the ethnic minorities of Hungary who are going to be disproportionately represented among emigrants. The same was true in Russia and in the Ottoman Empire, if I recall correctly.
Northern Croatia was the most developed part of Croatia as far as i know, that is why it was the most attractive, in southern Transylvania indeed industrialization could cause it (and mining?). In Central Hungary yes, it was the capital city that attracted the most immigrants. The first map was based on the 1910 census datas, the place of birth of the counted population compared to their place of residence. Generally apart from urbanization, industrialization and mining, big building projects, such as railway building and river regulation projects also caused temporary migrations, and there were also regular sesonal ones for agricultural works.


Around a quarter of all American emigrants were Hungarian speaking, indeed the minorities were overrepresented, but even there as it is easily visible in the case of Slovaks and Rusyns, the highest output was from peripherical areas with weak industrialization and smaller paced urbanization + poorer agricultural opportunities. So IMO the primer factor was economical in their case too (just like in the case of the emigrant Hungarians), not linguistic policies.

Btw around 35-40 percent of the American emigrants later returned, so many of them only worked in the US temporarily until they collected some wealth.
 
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