Juan Perons regime

May 2014
196
Norway
How was the regime of Juan Peron i Argentina? I Know he ruled Argentina from the 1940s until the mid 50s when he was overthrown and then again in the early 70s. I have heard some people call him a fascist dictator, some say he was a democratic leader, some say he was a populist that told people what they wanted to hear. He is also famous for his first lady Evita Peron.

What is the truth about this guy? Was he a dictator? Can his regime qualify as fascist? and was he good or bad for Argentina? and was there any repression during his time in office?
 

johnincornwall

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
7,676
Cornwall
Populist (via Eva) fascist dictator. Till the money printing runs out................... Sheltered a lot of fleeing nazis into the bargain

The film is not popular with some but if you watch Evita it gives you a broad guide to what was going on
 
May 2014
196
Norway
Populist (via Eva) fascist dictator. Till the money printing runs out................... Sheltered a lot of fleeing nazis into the bargain

The film is not popular with some but if you watch Evita it gives you a broad guide to what was going on
Was his regime similar to Mussolinis Italy or Francoist Spain, since he is sometimes considered a fascist? Did he have absolute power in Argentina? and would his critics risk imprisonment, torture or even assassination?
 

johnincornwall

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
7,676
Cornwall
Was his regime similar to Mussolinis Italy or Francoist Spain, since he is sometimes considered a fascist? Did he have absolute power in Argentina? and would his critics risk imprisonment, torture or even assassination?
Similar is restriction of freedom. But came to power as a populist party 'of the common people' basically giving away money and promising to put an end to the long stream of miltary neo-fascist governments. But with corruption, printing money, throwing out the British companies who fuelled the economy (popular but very like Chavez/Maduro) and the death of Evita it was just another miltary right-wing dicataroship.

Juan Peron had another go in the 70s as I recall. Brought back as the great saviour but with even more catastrophic results, eventually leading to the Galtieri dictatorship and the Falklands War
 
Nov 2014
976
USA
He was a populist and a demagogue who was influenced by his wife to use the low classes in Argentina for his own benefit. Eva had good experience for that being one of them and exploiting their complexes.
She used her sexual favors to climb up in the society circles of the country.

You can't say however that Peron was a fascist. although he had certain leanings towards it, he actually won three elections fair and square.
Both Juan and Eva Peron used certain undemocratic methods to impose unquestionable rule in Argentina that made the regime look like a dictatorship.

Peron and his followers were actually responsible for bringing two dictatorships in the country.
The first one in 1955 with general Lonardi overthrowing him and Aramburu afterwards establishing an antiperonist regime in the country.
The second one in 1966 due to the resurgence of Peronism in the country with generals Ongania, Levingston and Lanusse.

There was another dictatorship after his death in 1976, but that dictatorship came about because of continuous terrorism plaguing the country for years.
 
Nov 2014
976
USA
Everybody is blaming the 5 dictatorships in Argentina for all bad things that happened in the country .
However a close look at them would reveal that there were enough justifiable reasons for all of them.

Starting with the first one imposed from Uriburu in 1930 and overthrowing Yrigogen, one can detect two factors contributing to it.
First Yrigoyen in 1916 having been the one that gave for the first time the vote for all Argentinians as opposed to the elitism that existed before that, started acting like Peron did in the 1940's; that caused a split in his Radical party, and Alvear won the 1922 election (in reality Argentine elections are being held the last months of the previous year and governing starts at the beginning of the next year). By 1928 when Yrigoyen came back in 1928, the conservative forces were afraid he'll be using again some of the methods he had done before. Therefore there was the 1st dictatorship; the trouble was that in the elections of 1932 and 1938 there were established electoral frauds that called the period "The Infamous Decade" with Justo first, and Ortiz @ Castllio after 1938.

The second one in 1943 by the military, in reality it came on in order to stop the ridiculous practices of the "Infamous Decade", in which dictatorship Peron was a participant in it.
During that time Peron as minister of Labor with the encouragement from Evita mobilized the lower classes for his benefit., and won the election for 1946 and also the one for 1952. He tried however to identify his party with the whole country, being one and the same allowing very little opposition to his rule, using the lower classes and people who had benefited from his regime. That's the reason why a lot of people like to call him a dictator.

That situation however brought a lot of reaction and there was the third dictatorship in 1955, originally from moderate general Lonardi and afterwards from the hardliner Aramburu. Peronism became illegal in the country, and after 3 years, democracy was established again in the country until 1966. In the meantime however there was a resurgence of Peronism and it looked that it might come back.

Therefore the 4th dictatorship was established with generals Ongania 1966--1970, Levingston 1970-1971 and Lanusse 1971-1973. The military eventually realized that they could not do away with Peronism and allowed him to come back and win the 1973 election. He died the next year, but a lot of things were happening in the country, there were a lot of killings and terrorism between the armed forces and different communist organizations that had developed out of Peronism, like the Montoneros and the ERP.

Once again the military took over to stop terrorism that was tearing the country apart. It was a fight between the extreme right and the extreme left, and eventually the army won. They say that 30,000 people lost their lives during this period, but that figure seems to be an exaggeration, I think it was more closely to 9,000

In 1983 when democracy was established again the civilian governments have not proved that their assumption of power has been worthy; neither under the Radicals with Alfonsin or dela Rua, or the right wing of Peronists with Menem, even though at the beginning he was doing alright, or the two left wing Peronists Kirchner and wife Fernandez. Troubles seem to be even with the center right government of present day Macri.

May God put his hand and help this troubled country!
 
Jul 2017
335
Argentina
Hey posters.
As for the OP. I wouldn't pur Peron's as a fascist regime, but only because they didn't achieve building it. Not because they didn't try to become such. Text books in elementary school with drawings of Peron and Evita caressing children, show the kind of regime trying to control every aspect of people's life.
Hey Apollon. The 66 military dictatorship didn't come after Peron's second round in rule. In fact, it was these guys who made a pact with Peron in 73 to allowe him to come back from excile and be president.
It was this ancient and weak Perón who made left wingers FEEL strong, but actually making extreme right wingers BE strong, it was this Perón who prepare the field for the most criminal military-civil dictatorship to rise in power in 1976.
 
Nov 2014
976
USA
Hey maTiasddsm,
I never said that the 1966 dictatorship came after Peron's second round in 1973!

What happened during that dictatorship was that the generals realized that they could not eliminate Peronism, and finally the last dictator Lanusse allowed them to run for elections in 1973, which they won.

Another important thing that happened during the 1966-1973 dictatorship was the resurgence of terrorism by the Montoneros and the ERP, both Marxist organizations that culminated in the abduction and assassination in 1970 of former dictator Aramburu of the 1955-1958 dictatorship.

Peron died in 1974, it was his third wife Isabella who was president when the fifth dictatorship was formed, and it was during this time that the right-wing AAA was formed to fight terrorism by her advisor Lopez Rega.
 
Jul 2017
335
Argentina
Coming back to the OP, the truth about this guy has a little bit of everything.
He was a populist. Able to know what the masses want to hear. Able to negotiate when he had to.
No one can seriously call him a leftish polititian. ¡¡he came out of a military government!!
The workers unions he promoted, never ment the working class coming to power. Instead, who arose to power, is the union leaders (sindicalistas) coming to power. In this country, we know very well that union leaders (or straightly owners) are not "working class" and never were. Some few exceptions to that rule.
He was succesfull at creating an image for himself. It's so strong that youn people, born decades after his death, still call themselves "peronistas". That, he did with public money, of course.
 
Nov 2014
976
USA
Peronism started out as a leftist movement, especially due to influence by Evita. It didn't stay as such, especially after her death in 1952.
By 1973 when Peron came back from exile it was clearly a right-wing party.
The 1976 dictatorship by Videla, came more as a reaction against terrorism from the left, that was plaguing the country with almost every day assassinations, rather than against Peronism as it was the case with the previous two dictatorships of 1955 and 1966.
In fact, Videla was installed as head of the armed forces by president Isabella Peron.
After the restoration of democracy in 1983, the two Peronist governments that showed up since then were very different in themselves to one another.
The 10 years governing from Menem as a Peronist was clearly a right-wing governance, while the 12 years by the Kirchners was clearly a left wing; both supposedly coming out from Peronism!