Korea's Status During the Qing Dynasty

EmperorTigerstar

Ad Honorem
Jun 2013
6,402
USA
Many maps and historians express that Korea was conquered by the Mongols but by the Yuan dynasty it was an independent nation again. But suddenly the Qing waged several wars with Korea and forced it to become a tributary to the Qing Empire and recognize its legitimacy as the true Chinese dynasty. However the Joseon Dynasty of Korea was able to assert Korea as its own independent entity at practically the same time until Japan eventually overshadowed it. When was there an official point when Korea was no longer a tributary of China and a de facto independent entity again? Was it ever a true tributary in the first place? Did Qing overlordship remain until 1895?
 
Jul 2015
32
seoul
in 1636 Qing(hu-gum) attacked Korea.and Korea became a tributary.
until 1894 Korea still the same tributary.

the point is, it's not like western dependency.
the 1636 war, Qing won,but they didnt conquer any Korean mountain fortresses.
so after Qing attained the treaty of tributary, it retreated immediately.
so no interference in internal affairs.


That's why Korean are so resentful about Japnese's colony time.
 
Last edited:
Jul 2015
32
seoul
and Korea wasnt conquered by Mongols.
at that time also many mountain fortresses were not conquered.
so Korea and Molgols made a treaty in the late 13th century.
the content was
1.korean prince(not king) go to the mongols's capital and pay a tribute.
2.Mongol dont change Korean custom
 
Last edited:
Jan 2015
505
Large Fields
Korea was invaded by the Qing dynasty due to Joseon's loyalty to the Ming dynasty. The Manchus were viewed as barbarians both by the Han Chinese and Koreans, so it was something very difficult for Korean officials to accept such people as their protector. In 1637, the Manchu invaders were successful on subjugating Korea to make their tributary state. The newly founded Qing dynasty imposed some terms including the suspension of Ming-Joseon relations, demand of royal family members as hostage, financial tribute, reinforcements against the overthrowing the remainder of Ming forces, and etc. But shortly after, there have been talks within the Joseon government to break this treaty by rebelling, and help restore Ming power back to China. But this plan was eventually rejected due to sheer amount of projected damage. The Joseon kingdom paid tribute to the Qing then ever since, but Korea wasn't treated as a definite part of the Qing empire. Thus, the Joseon kingdom was able to enjoy a degree of independence from China. Then, we witness the Japanese and Russian interests in Korea emerge in the late 19th century. Japan first went to war against China in 1894 to get Korea and Taiwan as their first target. Japan successfully took those areas, and declared Korea de jure "independent." But you must remember that Japan did this not to anger the western powers by directly incorporating Korea to their sphere of influence. Japan was just making a cautious move by saying they "liberated" Korea, while in fact Korea became a Japanese protectorate. But this still angered Russia, who also waged war with Japan. But the war was victorious for the Japanese empire, with now Korea being secured to Japan. Japan's dominance over Korea was furthered strengthened with the Taft-Katsura Agreement. Japan finally annexed Korea in 1910, and they would hold it until the Allies took over the whole peninsula in 1945.
 
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heylouis

Ad Honorem
Apr 2013
6,627
China
it is not only about the tribute and overlords. the real situation always go beyond these namely concepts.
generally, korea had experienced a confused time on memorizing ming and serving qing. but on the qing side, since when it called itself qing, its concern on korea got much reduced, just like the old ming. for a long time, nobody from qing actually cared how korea memorizing ming. infact, not until the last days of qing, they tried to influence korea. unlike japan who tried to divide and conquer, qing even cooperated with korean queen to overthrow the king's father, who is not the core member of the royal family but meanwhile the biggest supporter of qing.
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,817
United States
Many maps and historians express that Korea was conquered by the Mongols but by the Yuan dynasty it was an independent nation again. But suddenly the Qing waged several wars with Korea and forced it to become a tributary to the Qing Empire and recognize its legitimacy as the true Chinese dynasty. However the Joseon Dynasty of Korea was able to assert Korea as its own independent entity at practically the same time until Japan eventually overshadowed it. When was there an official point when Korea was no longer a tributary of China and a de facto independent entity again? Was it ever a true tributary in the first place? Did Qing overlordship remain until 1895?
Korea's place under the Mongol domination varied depending on the king. Some kings were more independent, and others were less so.

Joseon was a Ming tributary from its beginning, and the Qing wanted to keep that situation. Joseon was under more direct Chinese control for a short period during the 1880s, IIRC.

Even when Korea was a tributary, the relationship was little more than ceremonial. The "tribute" was usually simply official trade mission, and as far as I know, the Chinese gave stuff in return. In this relationship, China agreed to not invade and to protect Korea while Korea agreed to be accept Chinese authority and not invade or be otherwise belligerent to China. Korea was an independent kingdom, even when a tributary.
 
Jun 2014
1,020
Earth
Korea's place under the Mongol domination varied depending on the king. Some kings were more independent, and others were less so.

Joseon was a Ming tributary from its beginning, and the Qing wanted to keep that situation. Joseon was under more direct Chinese control for a short period during the 1880s, IIRC.

Even when Korea was a tributary, the relationship was little more than ceremonial. The "tribute" was usually simply official trade mission, and as far as I know, the Chinese gave stuff in return. In this relationship, China agreed to not invade and to protect Korea while Korea agreed to be accept Chinese authority and not invade or be otherwise belligerent to China. Korea was an independent kingdom, even when a tributary.
it was a bit more than ceremonial.

Korea gave hundreds of thousands of taels of copper over the years to the Chinese treasury.

Personal gifts such as ginseng and virgins for concubines would also be given. The Emperor would in turn bestow some personal gifts etc.

Although you could argue that making quarterly tributary missions and visits for the Emperors birthday, and kowtowing on these occasions was simply a ceremony, it shows direct subordination which is crucial in geopolitics.

Obama performed a standing bow out of politeness to the Japanese royal family and caused a raucous.

Refusing to aid the Mongolians and Manchurians and Japanese in their invasions of China is an example of the relationship and how it materialized. So is the assistance of the Ming during the Imjin war