Logistics and structures of ancient armies??

Bart Dale

Ad Honorem
Dec 2009
7,095
#1
I am curious to know the logistics and organixational structure of ancient armies. We know quite a bit about the logistics and organization of Roman armies, tnanks to works like Vegetius De Re Militari, things like how many pieces of artillery were assinged to a legion and how they were assigned (the ballistas were assigned to existing centuries fighting units, and were not their own separare group), but what about the other ancient armies? The Persians, Chinese, Indians?

This isn't about who is better, but simply now they did it. Simply bedause the Romans didn't assign all their artillery to a separate century within the legion, doesn't make it the only way, or the best way. In other times and places, artillery could be assined to tneir own division separate from the infantry units There could be advantages to either way.

How many rations were an Indian soldier expected to carry, for example? Marius Caesar hadhis soldiers carry 15 days worth of food, in a sack tnat hung off the end of pole slung over tne legionnaire's shoulder , but how did tne Chinese Han soldier carry their supplies? In a ruck sack/backpacke maybe?

How many mules, horses etc., would be assigned for transportation to each army unit? Those are the kinds of information I would be curious to know. I have seen information on the Roman army about these kinds of questions, but , but in the dark with regards to other armies.
 
Mar 2011
5,047
Brazil
#2
I don't think there was any systematic standardization in almost all other ancient armies besides the Romans. The Persians for instance were a multicultural army that was drawn from the diverse provinces of the empire. In the Greek cities under Persian control the armies they drawn were just the same as the Greek armies and they were commanded by Greeks such as Memnon of Rhodes.
 
Feb 2011
6,379
#3
[FONT=&quot]From the Six Secret Teachings:[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]King Wu asked the Fai Kung: “When the king mobilizes the Three Armies, [/FONT][FONT=&quot]are there any rules for determining the army’s equipment, such as the imple[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ments for attack and defense, including type and quantity?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The T ai Kung said: “A great question, my king! The implements for at[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tack and defense each have their own categories. This results in the greatawesomeness of the army .” [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]King Wu said: “I would like to hear about them.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The Tai Kung replied: “As for the basic numbers when employing the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]army, if commanding ten thousand armed soldiers the rules for (the various[/FONT][FONT=&quot] types of equipment and their| employment are as follows. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Thirty-six Martial Protective Large Fu-hsii Chariots. Skilled officers,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and halberdiers— total of twenty-four for each flank [and the rear]. 6 ’ The chariots have eight-foot wheels. On it arc[/FONT][FONT=&quot]set up pennants and drums which, according to the Art of War, are referred to as ‘Shaking Fear.’ They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat[/FONT][FONT=&quot] strong enemies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Seventy-two Martial-Flanking Large Covered Spear and Halberd Fu-hsii [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Chariots . Skilled officers, strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and hal[/FONT][FONT=&quot]berdiers comprise the flanks. They have five-foot wheels and winch-powered linked crossbows which fire multiple arrows for self protection. They are[/FONT][FONT=&quot] used to penetrate solid formations and defeat strong enemies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“One hundred and forty Flank-supporting Small Covered Fu-hsii Chari[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ots equipped with winch-powered linked crossbows to fire multiple arrows [/FONT][FONT=&quot]for self-protection. They have deer wheels and are used to penetrate solid[/FONT][FONT=&quot] formations and defeat strong enemies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Thirty-six Great Yellow Triple-linked Crossbow Large Fu-hsii Chariots. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Skilled officers, strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and halberdiers com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]prise the flanks, with ‘flying duck’ and ‘lightning’s shadow’ arrows for self protection. ‘Flying duck’ arrows have red shafts and white feathers, with[/FONT][FONT=&quot] bronze arrowheads. ‘Lightning’s shadow’ arrows have green shafts and red feathers, with iron heads . In the daytime they display pennants of red silk[/FONT][FONT=&quot] six feet long by six inches wide, which shimmer in the light. At night they hang pennants of white silk, also six feet long by six inches wide, which ap[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pear like meteors. They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat infantry and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Thirty-six Great Fu-hsii Attack Chariots. ’ Carrying Praying Mantis [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Martial warriors, they can attack both horizontal and vertical formations[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and can defeat the enemy. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Baggage Chariots [for repelling) mounted invaders, also called ‘Lightning[/FONT][FONT=&quot] Chariots.’ The Art of War refers to their use in ‘lightning attacks.’ " They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat both infantry and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“One hundred and sixty Spear and Halberd Fu-hsii Light Chariots |for re[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pelling] night invaders from the fore. Each carries three Praying Mantis Martial knights. The Art of War refers to them as mounting ‘thunder attacks.’[/FONT][FONT=&quot]They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat both infantry and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Iron truncheons with large square heads weighing twelve catties, and [/FONT][FONT=&quot]shafts more than five feet long, twelve hundred of them. Also termed ‘Heav[/FONT][FONT=&quot]en’s Truncheon.’ [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“The Great Handle Fu Ax with an eight-inch blade, weighing eight catties,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and a shaft more than five feet long, twelve hundred of them. Also termed ‘Heaven’s Yiieh Ax.’ [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Also the Iron Square-headed Pounder, weighing eight catties, with a shaft[/FONT][FONT=&quot] of more than five feet, twelve hundred. Also termed ‘Heaven’s Pounder. They are used to defeat infantry and hordes of mounted invaders. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“The Flying Hook, eight inches long. The curve of the hook is five inches[/FONT][FONT=&quot] long, the shaft is more than six feet long. Twelve hundred of them. They are thrown into masses of soldiers. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“To defend the Three Armies deploy Fu-hsii [chariots] equipped with [/FONT][FONT=&quot]wooden Praying Mantises and sword blades, each twenty feet across, alto[/FONT][FONT=&quot]gether one hundred and twenty of them. They are also termed chevaux-de-frise. On open, level ground the infantry can use them to defeat chariots[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Wooden caltrops which stick out of the ground about two feet five [/FONT][FONT=&quot]inches, one hundred twenty. They are employed to defeat infantry and cav[/FONT][FONT=&quot]alry, to urgently press the attack against invaders, and to intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Short-axle Quick-turning Spear and Halberd Fu-hsii Chariots, one hun[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dred twenty. They were employed by the Yellow Emperor to vanquish Ch’ih-[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yu. They are used to defeat both infantry and cavalry, to urgently press the attack against the invaders, and to intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For narrow roads and small bypaths, set out iron caltrops eight inches[/FONT][FONT=&quot] wide, having hooks four inches high and shafts of more than six feet, twelve hundred. They are for defeating retreating cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“If, in the darkness of night the enemy should suddenly press an attack[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and the naked blades clash, stretch out a ground net and spread out two arrowheaded caltrops connected together with ‘weaving women’-type cal[/FONT][FONT=&quot]trops on both sides. The points of the blades should be about two feet apart. Twelve thousand sets. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For fighting in wild expanses and in the middle of tall grass, there is the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] square-shank, arrow-shaped spear, twelve hundred of them. The method for deploying these spears is to have them stick out of the ground one foot five[/FONT][FONT=&quot] inches. They are used to defeat infantry and cavalry, to urgently press the attack against invaders, and to intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“On narrow roads, small bypaths, and constricted terrain, set out iron [/FONT][FONT=&quot]chains, one hundred twenty of them, to defeat infantry and cavalry, urgently[/FONT][FONT=&quot] press the attack against the invaders, and intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For the protection and defense of the gates to fortifications, there are[/FONT][FONT=&quot] small |mobile] shields with spear and halberd [tips affixed], twelve of them, and winch-driven, multiple arrow crossbows for self-protection. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For the protection of the Three Armies, there are Heaven’s Net and Ti[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ger’s Drop, linked together with chains, one hundred twenty of them. One array is fifteen feet wide and eight feet tall. For the Fu-hsti [chariot| with Ti[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ger’s Drop and sword blades affixed, the array is fifteen feet wide and eightfeet tall. Five hundred ten of them. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For crossing over moats and ditches, there is the Flying Bridge. One sec[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tion is fifteen feet wide and more than twenty feet long. Eight of them. On top there are swivel winches to extend them by linked chains. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For crossing over large bodies of water, there is the Flying River, eight of[/FONT][FONT=&quot] them. They are fifteen feet wide and more than twenty feet long and are extended by linked chains. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“There is also the Heavenly Float with Iron Praying Mantis, rectangular[/FONT][FONT=&quot] inside, circular outside, four feet or more in diameter, equipped with plantern winches. Thirty-two of them. When the Heavenly Floats are used to[/FONT][FONT=&quot] deploy the Flying River to cross a large lake, they are referred to as ‘Heaven’s Huang’ and also termed ‘Heaven’s Boat.’ [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“When in mountain forests or occupying the wilds, connect the Tiger’s [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Drops to make a fenced encampment. [Employl iron chains, length of more than twenty feet, twelve hundred sets. [Also employ] large ropes with rings, ' girth of four inches, length of more than forty feet, six hundred;[/FONT][FONT=&quot] midsized ropes with rings, girth of two inches, length of forty feet or more, two hundred sets; and small braided cords with rings, length of twenty feet[/FONT][FONT=&quot] or more, twelve thousand. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Wooden canopies for covering the heavy chariots, called ‘Heaven’s Rain,’[/FONT][FONT=&quot]which fit together along serrated seams, each four feet wide and more than four feet long, one for each chariot. They are erected by using small iron[/FONT][FONT=&quot] posts. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For cutting trees there is the Heavenly Ax, which weighs eight catties. Its[/FONT][FONT=&quot] handle is more than three feet long. Three hundred of them. Also the mattock with a blade six inches wide and a shaft more than five feet long, three[/FONT][FONT=&quot] hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Copper rams for pounding, more than five feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Eagle claws with square hafts, iron handles, and shafts more than seven[/FONT][FONT=&quot] feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Square-shafted iron pitchforks with handles more than seven feet long,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Square-shafted double-pronged iron pitchforks with shafts more than [/FONT][FONT=&quot]seven feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Large sickles for cutting grass and light trees with shafts more than seven[/FONT][FONT=&quot] feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Great oar-shaped blades, weight of eight catties, with shafts more than[/FONT][FONT=&quot] six feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Iron stakes with rings affixed at top, more than three feet long, three hun[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Large hammers for pounding posts, weight of five catties, handles more[/FONT][FONT=&quot] than two feet long, one hundred twenty. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Armored soldiers, ten thousand. Strong crossbowmen, six thousand. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Halberdiers with shields, two thousand. Spearmen with shields, two thou[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sand. Skilled men to repair offensive weapons and sharpen them, three hundred. [/FONT]


[FONT=&quot]“These then are the general numbers required for each category when rais[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ing an army.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]King Wu said: “I accept your instructions.”
[/FONT]



[FONT=&quot]Also from "Six Secret Teachings":[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “When the king commands the army he must [/FONT][FONT=&quot]have ‘legs and arms [top assistants) and ‘feathers and wings' (aides) to bring about his awesomcness and spiritualness. How should this be done?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The T’ai Kung said: “Whenever one mobilizes the army it takes the com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]manding general as its fate. Its fate lies in a penetrating understanding of all aspects, not clinging to one technique. In accord with their abilities assign[/FONT][FONT=&quot] duties— each one taking charge of what they are good at, constantly changing and transforming with the times, to create the essential principles and order. Thus the general has seventy-two ‘legs and arms’ and ‘feathers and[/FONT][FONT=&quot] wings’ in order to respond to the Tao of Heaven. Prepare their number according to method, being careful that they know its orders and principles.[/FONT][FONT=&quot] When you have all the different abilities and various skills, then the myriad affairs will be complete.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]King Wu asked: “May I ask about the various categories?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The T’ai Kung said: u Fu-hsin [Chief of Planning ), one: in charge of ad[/FONT][FONT=&quot]vising about secret plans for responding to sudden events; investigating Heaven so as to eliminate sudden change; exercising general supervision[/FONT][FONT=&quot] over all planning; and protecting and preserving the lives of the people. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Planning officers, five: responsible for planning security and danger; an[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ticipating the unforeseen; discussing performance and ability; making clear rewards and punishments; appointing officers; deciding the doubtful; and[/FONT][FONT=&quot] determining what is advisable and what is not. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Astrologers, three: undertaking responsibility for the stars and calendar;[/FONT][FONT=&quot] observing the wind and ch’i; predicting auspicious days and times; investigating signs and phenomena; verifying disasters and abnormalities; and[/FONT][FONT=&quot]knowing Heaven’s mind with regard to the moment for completion or aban[/FONT][FONT=&quot]donment. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Topographers, three: in charge of the army’s disposition and strategic[/FONT][FONT=&quot] configuration of power when moving and stopped [and of] information on strategic advantages and disadvantages; precipitous and easy passages, both[/FONT][FONT=&quot] near and far; and water and dry land, mountains and defiles, so as not to lose the advantages of terrain. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Strategists, nine: responsible for discussing divergent views; analyzing[/FONT][FONT=&quot] the probable success or failure of various operations; selecting the weapons and training men in their use; and identifying those who violate the ordi[/FONT][FONT=&quot]nances. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Supply officers, four: responsible for calculating the requirements for[/FONT][FONT=&quot] food and water; preparing the food stocks and supplies and transporting the provisions along the route; and supplying the five grains so as to ensure that[/FONT][FONT=&quot] the army will not suffer any hardship or shortage. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Officers for Flourishing Awesomeness, four: responsible for picking men [/FONT][FONT=&quot]of talent and strength; for discussing weapons and armor; for setting up attacks that race like the wind and strike like thunder so that the enemy does [/FONT][FONT=&quot]not know where they come from. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Secret Signals officers, " three: responsible for the pennants and drums,[/FONT][FONT=&quot]for clearly [signaling) to the eyes and ears; for creating deceptive signs and seals [and| issuing false designations and orders; and for stealthily and hast[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ily moving back and forth, going in and out like spirits. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Legs and Arms, four: responsible for undertaking heavy duties and han[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dling difficult tasks; for the repair and maintenance of ditches and moats; and for keeping the walls and ramparts in repair in order to defend against[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and repel [the enemy]. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Liaison officers, two: responsible for gathering what has been lost and[/FONT][FONT=&quot] supplementing what is in error; receiving honored guests; holding discussions and talks; mitigating disasters; and resolving difficulties. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Officers of Authority, three: responsible for implementing the unortho[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dox and deceptive; for establishing the different and the unusual, things that people do not recognize; and for putting into effect inexhaustible transfor[/FONT][FONT=&quot]mations. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Ears and Eyes, seven: responsible for going about everywhere, listening[/FONT][FONT=&quot] to what people are saying; seeing the changes; and observing the officers in all four directions and the army’s true situation. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Claws and Teeth, five: responsible for raising awesomeness and martial[/FONT][FONT=&quot][spirit); for stimulating and encouraging the Three Armies, causing them to[/FONT][FONT=&quot] risk hardship and attack the enemy’s elite troops without ever having any doubts or second thoughts. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Feathers and Wings, four: responsible for flourishing the name and fame[/FONT][FONT=&quot] of the army; for shaking distant lands [with its image); and for moving all within the four borders in order to weaken the enemy’s spirit. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Roving officers, eight: responsible for spying on [the enemy’s] licentious[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ness and observing their changes; manipulating their emotions; and observing the enemy’s thoughts in order to act as spies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]"Officers of Techniques, two: responsible for spreading slander and false[/FONT][FONT=&quot]hoods and for calling on ghosts and spirits in order to confuse the minds of the populace. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Officers of Prescriptions, three: in charge of the hundred medicines; man[/FONT][FONT=&quot]aging blade wounds; and curing the various maladies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]‘Accountants, two: responsible for accounting for the provisions and[/FONT][FONT=&quot] foodstuffs within the Three Armies’ encampments and ramparts; for the fiscal materials employed; and for receipts and disbursements.” [/FONT]








[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][FONT=&quot]From Sun Bin's Art of War:[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
"...[corrupted text]....filial deference, fraternity of the younger brother and being good at one's job are the five virtues of the soldier. If he does not have even one of these, even though he is a fine archer, he will not have a place on the chariot. This is why the expert archer is placed on the left, the expert charioteer is made driver, and the one who is totally devoid of ability is placed on the right. On this general principle, if you organize three men as one chariot, five men as a squad, ten men as a platoon, a hundred men as a company, a thousand men as a regiment, and ten thousand men as a full division, large numbers of troops can be deployed effectively. Such is the training necessary when taking one's place in the state."[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]From the Shiji on systematic reward system:[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
Let us agree that anyone who kills or captures a general in chief shall be rewarded with 5,000 catties of gold and a fief of 10,000 households; for a ranking general, 2,000 catties and a fief of 5,000 households; for a lieutenant general 2,000 catties and 2,000 households; for an official of the rank of 2,000 piculs, 1,000 catties and 1,000 households; for an official of 1000 piculs, 500 catties and 500 households; all to be awarded the title of marquis. The capture of an army of 10,000 men or a city of 10,000 inhabitants shall be rewarded the same as the capture of a general in chief; an army or a city of 5,000 the same as a ranking general; an army or city of 3,000 the same as a lieutenant general; and an army or a city of 1,000 the same as an official of 2,000 picul rank. Those who capture lesser officials shall be rewarded with titles and gold in accordance with the rank of the captives. All other grants of fiefs and money shall likewise be twice those prescribed by the usual Han laws. Those who in the past have already received noble titles and fiefs shall be granded new awards regardless of their previous holdings. - Liu Pi on Revolting, Shiji.[/FONT]
 
Last edited:
Feb 2011
6,379
#4
How many mules, horses etc., would be assigned for transportation to each army unit? Those are the kinds of information I would be curious to know. I have seen information on the Roman army about these kinds of questions, but , but in the dark with regards to other armies.
I highly doubt this is a hard and fast rule. The optimum number of mules per legion, rations per soldier, would depend on the distance traveled, marching speed, the difficulty of traveling this distance, and the foraging/resupply potential along the way. I would like to hear the context of such rules.


It may even have to do with controlling morale. For example, after crossing the Zhang River, general Xiang Yu had his soldiers smash their cooking pots and sink their boats, carrying only three days' worth of supply. This way the only chance for survival is by defeating the enemy and taking their supplies. The strategy worked, and this act became a popular Chinese proverb "Smash the Cooking Pots and Sink the Ships", a term for committing yourself to the point of no return.
 
Last edited:

Bart Dale

Ad Honorem
Dec 2009
7,095
#6
[FONT=&quot]From the Six Secret Teachings:[/FONT][FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]King Wu asked the Fai Kung: “When the king mobilizes the Three Armies, [/FONT][FONT=&quot]are there any rules for determining the army’s equipment, such as the imple[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ments for attack and defense, including type and quantity?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The T ai Kung said: “A great question, my king! The implements for at[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tack and defense each have their own categories. This results in the greatawesomeness of the army .” [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]King Wu said: “I would like to hear about them.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The Tai Kung replied: “As for the basic numbers when employing the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]army, if commanding ten thousand armed soldiers the rules for (the various[/FONT][FONT=&quot] types of equipment and their| employment are as follows. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Thirty-six Martial Protective Large Fu-hsii Chariots. Skilled officers,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and halberdiers— total of twenty-four for each flank [and the rear]. 6 ’ The chariots have eight-foot wheels. On it arc[/FONT][FONT=&quot]set up pennants and drums which, according to the Art of War, are referred to as ‘Shaking Fear.’ They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat[/FONT][FONT=&quot] strong enemies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Seventy-two Martial-Flanking Large Covered Spear and Halberd Fu-hsii [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Chariots . Skilled officers, strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and hal[/FONT][FONT=&quot]berdiers comprise the flanks. They have five-foot wheels and winch-powered linked crossbows which fire multiple arrows for self protection. They are[/FONT][FONT=&quot] used to penetrate solid formations and defeat strong enemies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“One hundred and forty Flank-supporting Small Covered Fu-hsii Chari[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ots equipped with winch-powered linked crossbows to fire multiple arrows [/FONT][FONT=&quot]for self-protection. They have deer wheels and are used to penetrate solid[/FONT][FONT=&quot] formations and defeat strong enemies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Thirty-six Great Yellow Triple-linked Crossbow Large Fu-hsii Chariots. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Skilled officers, strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and halberdiers com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]prise the flanks, with ‘flying duck’ and ‘lightning’s shadow’ arrows for self protection. ‘Flying duck’ arrows have red shafts and white feathers, with[/FONT][FONT=&quot] bronze arrowheads. ‘Lightning’s shadow’ arrows have green shafts and red feathers, with iron heads . In the daytime they display pennants of red silk[/FONT][FONT=&quot] six feet long by six inches wide, which shimmer in the light. At night they hang pennants of white silk, also six feet long by six inches wide, which ap[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pear like meteors. They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat infantry and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Thirty-six Great Fu-hsii Attack Chariots. ’ Carrying Praying Mantis [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Martial warriors, they can attack both horizontal and vertical formations[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and can defeat the enemy. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Baggage Chariots [for repelling) mounted invaders, also called ‘Lightning[/FONT][FONT=&quot] Chariots.’ The Art of War refers to their use in ‘lightning attacks.’ " They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat both infantry and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“One hundred and sixty Spear and Halberd Fu-hsii Light Chariots |for re[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pelling] night invaders from the fore. Each carries three Praying Mantis Martial knights. The Art of War refers to them as mounting ‘thunder attacks.’[/FONT][FONT=&quot]They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat both infantry and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Iron truncheons with large square heads weighing twelve catties, and [/FONT][FONT=&quot]shafts more than five feet long, twelve hundred of them. Also termed ‘Heav[/FONT][FONT=&quot]en’s Truncheon.’ [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“The Great Handle Fu Ax with an eight-inch blade, weighing eight catties,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and a shaft more than five feet long, twelve hundred of them. Also termed ‘Heaven’s Yiieh Ax.’ [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Also the Iron Square-headed Pounder, weighing eight catties, with a shaft[/FONT][FONT=&quot] of more than five feet, twelve hundred. Also termed ‘Heaven’s Pounder. They are used to defeat infantry and hordes of mounted invaders. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“The Flying Hook, eight inches long. The curve of the hook is five inches[/FONT][FONT=&quot] long, the shaft is more than six feet long. Twelve hundred of them. They are thrown into masses of soldiers. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“To defend the Three Armies deploy Fu-hsii [chariots] equipped with [/FONT][FONT=&quot]wooden Praying Mantises and sword blades, each twenty feet across, alto[/FONT][FONT=&quot]gether one hundred and twenty of them. They are also termed chevaux-de-frise. On open, level ground the infantry can use them to defeat chariots[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Wooden caltrops which stick out of the ground about two feet five [/FONT][FONT=&quot]inches, one hundred twenty. They are employed to defeat infantry and cav[/FONT][FONT=&quot]alry, to urgently press the attack against invaders, and to intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Short-axle Quick-turning Spear and Halberd Fu-hsii Chariots, one hun[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dred twenty. They were employed by the Yellow Emperor to vanquish Ch’ih-[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yu. They are used to defeat both infantry and cavalry, to urgently press the attack against the invaders, and to intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For narrow roads and small bypaths, set out iron caltrops eight inches[/FONT][FONT=&quot] wide, having hooks four inches high and shafts of more than six feet, twelve hundred. They are for defeating retreating cavalry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“If, in the darkness of night the enemy should suddenly press an attack[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and the naked blades clash, stretch out a ground net and spread out two arrowheaded caltrops connected together with ‘weaving women’-type cal[/FONT][FONT=&quot]trops on both sides. The points of the blades should be about two feet apart. Twelve thousand sets. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For fighting in wild expanses and in the middle of tall grass, there is the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] square-shank, arrow-shaped spear, twelve hundred of them. The method for deploying these spears is to have them stick out of the ground one foot five[/FONT][FONT=&quot] inches. They are used to defeat infantry and cavalry, to urgently press the attack against invaders, and to intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“On narrow roads, small bypaths, and constricted terrain, set out iron [/FONT][FONT=&quot]chains, one hundred twenty of them, to defeat infantry and cavalry, urgently[/FONT][FONT=&quot] press the attack against the invaders, and intercept their flight. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For the protection and defense of the gates to fortifications, there are[/FONT][FONT=&quot] small |mobile] shields with spear and halberd [tips affixed], twelve of them, and winch-driven, multiple arrow crossbows for self-protection. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For the protection of the Three Armies, there are Heaven’s Net and Ti[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ger’s Drop, linked together with chains, one hundred twenty of them. One array is fifteen feet wide and eight feet tall. For the Fu-hsti [chariot| with Ti[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ger’s Drop and sword blades affixed, the array is fifteen feet wide and eightfeet tall. Five hundred ten of them. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For crossing over moats and ditches, there is the Flying Bridge. One sec[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tion is fifteen feet wide and more than twenty feet long. Eight of them. On top there are swivel winches to extend them by linked chains. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For crossing over large bodies of water, there is the Flying River, eight of[/FONT][FONT=&quot] them. They are fifteen feet wide and more than twenty feet long and are extended by linked chains. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“There is also the Heavenly Float with Iron Praying Mantis, rectangular[/FONT][FONT=&quot] inside, circular outside, four feet or more in diameter, equipped with plantern winches. Thirty-two of them. When the Heavenly Floats are used to[/FONT][FONT=&quot] deploy the Flying River to cross a large lake, they are referred to as ‘Heaven’s Huang’ and also termed ‘Heaven’s Boat.’ [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“When in mountain forests or occupying the wilds, connect the Tiger’s [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Drops to make a fenced encampment. [Employl iron chains, length of more than twenty feet, twelve hundred sets. [Also employ] large ropes with rings, ' girth of four inches, length of more than forty feet, six hundred;[/FONT][FONT=&quot] midsized ropes with rings, girth of two inches, length of forty feet or more, two hundred sets; and small braided cords with rings, length of twenty feet[/FONT][FONT=&quot] or more, twelve thousand. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Wooden canopies for covering the heavy chariots, called ‘Heaven’s Rain,’[/FONT][FONT=&quot]which fit together along serrated seams, each four feet wide and more than four feet long, one for each chariot. They are erected by using small iron[/FONT][FONT=&quot] posts. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“For cutting trees there is the Heavenly Ax, which weighs eight catties. Its[/FONT][FONT=&quot] handle is more than three feet long. Three hundred of them. Also the mattock with a blade six inches wide and a shaft more than five feet long, three[/FONT][FONT=&quot] hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Copper rams for pounding, more than five feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Eagle claws with square hafts, iron handles, and shafts more than seven[/FONT][FONT=&quot] feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Square-shafted iron pitchforks with handles more than seven feet long,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Square-shafted double-pronged iron pitchforks with shafts more than [/FONT][FONT=&quot]seven feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Large sickles for cutting grass and light trees with shafts more than seven[/FONT][FONT=&quot] feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Great oar-shaped blades, weight of eight catties, with shafts more than[/FONT][FONT=&quot] six feet long, three hundred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Iron stakes with rings affixed at top, more than three feet long, three hun[/FONT][FONT=&quot]dred. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Large hammers for pounding posts, weight of five catties, handles more[/FONT][FONT=&quot] than two feet long, one hundred twenty. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Armored soldiers, ten thousand. Strong crossbowmen, six thousand. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Halberdiers with shields, two thousand. Spearmen with shields, two thou[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sand. Skilled men to repair offensive weapons and sharpen them, three hundred. [/FONT]


[FONT=&quot]“These then are the general numbers required for each category when rais[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ing an army.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]King Wu said: “I accept your instructions.”
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]From the Shiji on systematic reward system:[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
Let us agree that anyone who kills or captures a general in chief shall be rewarded with 5,000 catties of gold and a fief of 10,000 households; for a ranking general, 2,000 catties and a fief of 5,000 households; for a lieutenant general 2,000 catties and 2,000 households; for an official of the rank of 2,000 piculs, 1,000 catties and 1,000 households; for an official of 1000 piculs, 500 catties and 500 households; all to be awarded the title of marquis. The capture of an army of 10,000 men or a city of 10,000 inhabitants shall be rewarded the same as the capture of a general in chief; an army or a city of 5,000 the same as a ranking general; an army or city of 3,000 the same as a lieutenant general; and an army or a city of 1,000 the same as an official of 2,000 picul rank. Those who capture lesser officials shall be rewarded with titles and gold in accordance with the rank of the captives. All other grants of fiefs and money shall likewise be twice those prescribed by the usual Han laws. Those who in the past have already received noble titles and fiefs shall be granded new awards regardless of their previous holdings. - Liu Pi on Revolting, Shiji.[/FONT]
An excellent list ofr equipements. But a few comments:

1. I don't see how the all tne chariots are integrated into the army structute. Were they used in in a separate division pf the army, or organized within existing sub units of the 10,000 ment, as the Roman ballistas were according to Vegetius?

2. While the quantity of the equipment is listed, I don't see a specific number given for people to operate the equipment, it seems rather undefined. Are there other sources that give specific numbers to operate, and where from the army they were obtained (separate group of specificalist or from the general ranks).

3. The quantity of crossbowmen, halberd men, spearmen are given, but how was the 10,000 organized into small subgroups? Were there something equivalent to Roman cohorts and centuries? Did each subgroup contain some crossbowmen, halberd men, and spearmen, or were all the crossbowmen separate group, as they were in medieval armies?

4. A halberd is a two handed weapon, so how can you use a shield with it? No mention is made of a shield for the crossbow , and since shields are specifically mentioned for the others, does that mean Chinese crossbowmen, unlike European crossbowmen, had no pavise to hide behind?

5. I see the equipment mentioned for crossing rivers. But I don't see any talk of support personnel, such as doctors, carpenters, blacksmiths to support the army. I suppose the skilled men could includd blacksmiths and carpenters, but tney don't seem to include engineers, and tney wouldn't include doctors and healers..


6. The chariots mentioned seem rather like carts than chariots in the western sense. Would oxen or horses/mules be used to haul them? I ask, because Vegetius said mules were used to draw the carts of the ballistas and oxen used to haul the carts of the onager (implying onagers were bigger, and needed more powerful animals to draw them than the ballistas.)

7. What about cavalry? I see chariots mentioned, but I don't see any cavarly mentioned.

PS - I see you updated your post after I had replied. It looks like some of the updares answered some of my questions.
 
Last edited:

Bart Dale

Ad Honorem
Dec 2009
7,095
#7
I highly doubt this is a hard and fast rule. The optimum number of mules per legion, rations per soldier, would depend on the distance traveled, marching speed, the difficulty of traveling this distance, and the foraging/resupply potential along the way. I would like to hear the context of such rules. 
Marius Caesar implement the polich of Roman soldiers carrying 15 days rations. From what I read, there were apparently 1 mule per 10 soldiers, so the legions had around 500 mules, plus another 55 mules for the ballista carts. Mules seem the preferred pack animal, versus ox or other animals. And it seems that Romans preferred to use mule as pack animals ratner than hauling than nauling carts with ox or mules, but perhaps China was different. China in a number of dynasties, such as the Song, hadn difficulty in obtaining the number of horses it needed, so perhaps they would prefer to use oxen?



It may even have to do with controlling morale. For example, after crossing the Zhang River, general Xiang Yu had his soldiers smash their cooking pots and sink their boats, carrying only three days' worth of supply. This way the only chance for survival is by defeating the enemy and taking their supplies. The strategy worked, and this act became a popular Chinese proverb "Smash the Cooking Pots and Sink the Ships", a term for committing yourself to the point of no return.
What would be the normal ration for the Chinese soldier to carry ? It seems more than 3 days from what you say. No mention is made of pack animals to carry supplies.

The Romans had standard containers, clay amphoraes and wooden barrels, for carrying supplies. Both had features to aid in loading and unloading. (Ampnora's had ears you could lift by, tie down, and barrels of course you can roll). Did the Chinesenn have any favored shippong container used to carry suppliers on ships?
 
Last edited:
Feb 2011
6,379
#8
I highly doubt this is a hard and fast rule. The optimum number of mules per legion, rations per soldier, would depend on the distance traveled, marching speed, the difficulty of traveling this distance, and the foraging/resupply potential along the way. I would like to hear the context of such rules.

Marius Caesar implement the polich of Roman soldiers carrying 15 days rations. From what I read, there were apparently 1 mule per 10 soldiers, so the legions had around 500 mules, plus another 55 mules for the ballista carts. Mules seem the preferred pack animal, versus ox or other animals. And it seems that Romans preferred to use mule as pack animals ratner than hauling than nauling carts with ox or mules, but perhaps China was different. China in a number of dynasties, such as the Song, hadn difficulty in obtaining the number of horses it needed, so perhaps they would prefer to use oxen?




What would be the normal ration for the Chinese soldier to carry ? It seems more than 3 days from what you say. No mention is made of pack animals to carry supplies.

The Romans had standard containers, clay amphoraes and wooden barrels, for carrying supplies. Both had features to aid in loading and unloading. (Ampnora's had ears you could lift by, tie down, and barrels of course you can roll). Did the Chinesenn have any favored shippong container used to carry suppliers on ships?

quotes for context.
 
Feb 2011
6,379
#9
[FONT=&quot]Continued from Six Secret Teachings:
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]Marquis Wu asked: “In employing the troops what is primary?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu Ch’i replied: “First make clear the four [principles) of lightness, the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] two of heaviness, and the one of belief.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]The Duke asked: “What do you mean?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]He replied: “You should arrange the employment of terrain so that it will[/FONT][FONT=&quot] be easy for the horses; the horses so that they will easily pull the chariots; the chariots so that they will easily convey the men; and the men so that they will[/FONT][FONT=&quot] easily engage in battle. If you are clear about treacherous and easy ground, then the terrain will be light for the horses. If they have hay and grain at the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] proper times, the horses will easily pull the chariots. If the axles are well greased, the chariots will easily convey the men. If the weapons are sharp[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and armor sturdy, the men will easily engage in battle. For advancing there should be generous rewards; for retreating heavy penalties; and they should[/FONT][FONT=&quot] both be properly implemented so that they will be believed in. If your examination can realize this, it will be the key to victory .” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Marquis Wu asked: “What measures will ensure the soldiers will be victo[/FONT][FONT=&quot]rious?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu Ch’i replied: “Control is foremost.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Marquis Wu again asked: “It is not large numbers?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]If the orders are not clear, rewards and punishments not[/FONT][FONT=&quot] trusted; when sounding the gongs will not cause them to halt or beating the drum to advance, then even if you had one million men, of what use would [/FONT][FONT=&quot]they be? What is meant by control is that when stationary [in camp| they ob[/FONT][FONT=&quot]serve the forms of propriety [/;') and when in action they are awesome. When they advance they cannot be withstood; when they withdraw they cannot be[/FONT][FONT=&quot] pursued. Their advancing and withdrawing are measured; the left and right flanks respond to the signal flags. Even if broken off from the main order[/FONT][FONT=&quot] they preserve their formations; even if scattered they will reform lines. They will hold together in peace; they will hold together in danger. Their number[/FONT][FONT=&quot] can be assembled together, but cannot be forced apart. They can be employed, but they cannot be exhausted. No matter where you can dispatch[/FONT][FONT=&quot]them, no one under Heaven will be able to withstand them. They are called [/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]‘the troops of a father and son .’”[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu-tzu said: “In general the Way [Tao] to command an army on the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]march is to not contravene the proper measure of advancing and stopping;[/FONT][FONT=&quot]not miss the appropriate times for eating and drinking; and not completely exhaust the strength of the men and horses. These three are the means by [/FONT][FONT=&quot]which the troops can undertake the orders of their superiors. When the orders of superiors are followed, control is produced. If advancing and resting[/FONT][FONT=&quot] are not measured; if drinking and eating are not timely and appropriate; and if, when the horses are tired and the men weary, they are not allowed to relax[/FONT][FONT=&quot] in the encampment, then they will be unable to put the commander’s orders [/FONT] [FONT=&quot]into effect. When the commander’s orders are thus disobeyed, when en[/FONT][FONT=&quot]camped they will be in turmoil, and in battle they will be defeated.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu-tzu said: “In general, on the battlefield — soon to become a grave[/FONT][FONT=&quot]yard — if the soldiers are committed to fight to the death they will live,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] whereas if they seek to stay alive they will die. A good general will act as if [they are) in a sinking boat or trapped in a burning building — there is not[/FONT][FONT=&quot] enough time for the wise to make plans or the courageous to get angry. Only engaging the enemy will do! Thus it is said that the greatest harm that can be[/FONT][FONT=&quot]fall the army’s employment stems from hesitation, while the disasters that strike the Three Armies are born in doubt.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu-tzu said: “Now men constantly perish from their inabilities and are [/FONT][FONT=&quot]defeated by the unfamiliar. Thus among the methods for using the military,[/FONT][FONT=&quot]training and causing them to be alert are first. One man who has been trained in warfare can instruct ten men. Ten men who have studied warfare[/FONT][FONT=&quot] can train one hundred men. And one hundred such men can train one thousand. One thousand, ten thousand; and ten thousand who have been trained[/FONT][FONT=&quot] in warfare can train the entire body of the Three Armies. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“With the nearby await the distant; with the well-ordered await the la[/FONT][FONT=&quot]bored; with the surfeited await the hungry. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Have them deploy in circular formations, then change to square ones. [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Have them sit, then get up; move, then halt. Have them move to the left, then[/FONT][FONT=&quot]the right; forward and to the rear. Have them divide and combine, unite and[/FONT][FONT=&quot]disperse. When all these changes are familiar, provide them with weapons. These are what are termed ‘the general’s affairs.’” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu-tzu said: “The basic rule of warfare that should be taught is that men[/FONT][FONT=&quot] short in stature should carry spears and spear-tipped halberds, while the tall should carry bows and crossbows. The strong should carry the flags and[/FONT][FONT=&quot] banners; the courageous should carry the bells and drums. The weak should serve in supply work, while the wise should supervise the planning. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]"Districts and villages should be organized together, with squads of five[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and ten forming the basis for mutual protection and guarantee. To a single drum beat they should prepare their weapons; to the double beat they should[/FONT][FONT=&quot] drill in various deployments; to a triple beat they should hasten to eat; to a quadruple beat they should have final inspection; and to a five-beat cadence[/FONT][FONT=&quot] they should move out. Only after you hear the drums sound in unison should you raise the banners.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Marquis Wu asked: "Is there a Way [Tao| for advancing and halting the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Three Armies?” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu Ch i replied: "Do not confront ‘Heaven’s Furnace’ or ‘Dragon’s [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Head.’ Heaven’s Furnace is the mouth of a deep valley. Dragon’s Head is the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] base of a high mountain. You should keep the Green Dragon banner on the left, White Tiger on the right, Vermillion Bird in the front, Mysterious Mili[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tary to the rear, with Twinkler above from where military affairs will be controlled. When about to engage in combat determine the wind’s direction. If[/FONT][FONT=&quot] favorable, yell and follow it; if contrary, assume a solid formation and await the enemy.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Marquis Wu asked: “In general are there methods for taking care of the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]chariots and cavalry ?”[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu Ch’i replied: “Now the horses must be properly settled, with appropri[/FONT][FONT=&quot]ate grass and water and correct feeding so as to be neither hungry nor full. In the winter they should have warm stables, in the summer cool sheds. Their[/FONT][FONT=&quot] mane and hair should be kept trimmed and their hooves properly cared for. Blinders and ear protectors should be used so as to keep them from being[/FONT][FONT=&quot] startled and frightened. Practice their galloping and pursuit, exercise constraint over their advancing and halting. Men and horses must be attached to[/FONT][FONT=&quot] each other; only thereafter can they be employed. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“The equipment for the chariots and cavalry — such as saddles, bridles,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] bits, and reins — must all be complete and durable. Normally, the horses do not receive their injuries near the end of the battle but invariably they are in[/FONT][FONT=&quot]jured at the start. Similarly, they are not injured so much by hunger as by being overfed. When the sun is setting and the road long, the riders should fre[/FONT][FONT=&quot]quently dismount for it is better to have the men weary than to overlabor the horses. You should always direct movements so as to keep some strength in[/FONT][FONT=&quot] reserve against the enemy suddenly turning on us. Anyone who is clear about this can traverse the realm without hindrance.” [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]Wu-tzu said: “Now the commanding general of the Three Armies should [/FONT][FONT=&quot]combine both military and civilian abilities. The employment of soldiers re[/FONT][FONT=&quot]quires uniting both hardness and softness. In general when people discuss generalship, they usually focus on courage. However, courage is but one of a[/FONT][FONT=&quot] general’s many characteristics for the courageous will rashly join battle with the enemy. To rashly join battle with an enemy without knowing the advan[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tages and disadvantages is not acceptable. Now the affairs to which the general must pay careful attention arc five: first, regulation; second, prep[/FONT][FONT=&quot]aration; third, commitment; fourth, caution; and fifth, simplification. Regulation is governing the masses just as one controls a few. Preparation is going[/FONT][FONT=&quot] out the city gate as if seeing the enemy. Commitment means entering combat without any concern for life. Caution means that even after conquering, one[/FONT][FONT=&quot] maintains the same control and attitude as if just entering a battle. Simplification means the laws and orders are kept to a minimum and are not abra[/FONT][FONT=&quot]sive. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“To accept the mandate of command without ever declining, destroy the [/FONT][FONT=&quot]enemy, and only afterward speak about returning is the proper form of [/FONT][FONT=&quot]behavior for a general. Thus when the army goes forth, his only thought[/FONT][FONT=&quot] should be of the glory that death will bring, not the shame of living.” [/FONT]
 
Last edited:
Feb 2011
6,379
#10
More on military organization in Six Secret Teachings:

[FONT=&quot]“Generals have different flags, companies have different emblems. The [/FONT][FONT=&quot]Army of the Left wears their emblems on the left shoulder; the Army of the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] Right wears their emblems on the right shoulder; the Central Army wears their emblems on the front of the chest. Record their emblems as 'a certain[/FONT][FONT=&quot] armored soldier' and 'a certain officer'. From front to rear, for each platoon[/FONT][FONT=&quot]of] five lines the most honored emblems are placed on the head, the others accordingly lower and lower .[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]"The squad leader instructs the other four men using a board as a drum, a[/FONT][FONT=&quot] piece of tile as a gong, and a branch as a flag. When he strikes the drum they should advance; when he lowers the flag they should race forward; when he[/FONT][FONT=&quot] strikes the gong they should withdraw. When he points
they should go to the left; when he points
they should go to the right. When the gongs[/FONT][FONT=&quot] and drums are struck together they should sit. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“When the squad leader has completed instructing the squad, they should[/FONT][FONT=&quot] be united |with another squad] under a leader for a double squad of ten. When the double squad leader has completed instructing them, they should[/FONT][FONT=&quot] be united under a platoon commander. When the platoon commander has completed instructing them, they should be united under a company com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]mander. When the company commander has completed instructing them, they should be united under an army commandant . When the army com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]mandant has completed instructing them, they should be united under a subordinate general. When the subordinate general has completed instructing[/FONT][FONT=&quot] them, they should be united under the commanding general. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“When the commanding general has completed instructing them, he has [/FONT][FONT=&quot]them deploy into formation in the countryside. He sets up three large posts,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] one every hundred paces, and has the formation move away from them. They advance one hundred paces and practice weaponry . They quickstep[/FONT][FONT=&quot] for a hundred paces and then race for another hundred paces. They practice battle tactics in order to attain the measure set by the general. Afterward,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] rewards and punishments should be implemented. [/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“From the commandant down, every officer has a flag. When the battle [/FONT][FONT=&quot]has been won, in each case look at the rank of the flags that have been cap[/FONT][FONT=&quot]tured in order to stimulate their hearts with clear rewards.
[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]And at another place of the passage....:[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
[FONT=&quot]“Ensure that the members of the squads of five and ten are like relatives,[/FONT][FONT=&quot] the members of the companies and their officers like friends. When they[/FONT][FONT=&quot] stop they will be like a solid, encircling wall, when they move like the wind [/FONT]


[FONT=&quot]And at another place of the passage....:[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“Thus for five men there is a squad leader, for ten men a lieutenant, for one[/FONT][FONT=&quot] hundred men a company captain, for one thousand men a battalion com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]mander, and for ten thousand men a general. [This organization] is already[/FONT][FONT=&quot] all-encompassing, already perfected. If a man dies in the morning, another [/FONT][FONT=&quot]will replace him that morning; if a man dies in the evening, another will re[/FONT][FONT=&quot]place him that evening. [The wise ruler] weighs the tactical balance of power [/FONT][FONT=&quot]with the enemy, evaluates the generals, and only thereafter mobilizes the[/FONT][FONT=&quot] army.
[/FONT]


[FONT=&quot]And at another place of the passage....:[/FONT]

[FONT=&quot]“The Law for Battlefield Executions states: ‘The leader of a double squad[/FONT][FONT=&quot] of ten can execute the other nine. A company commander can execute the double squad leaders. The general of one thousand men can execute com[/FONT][FONT=&quot]pany commanders. The general of ten thousand men can execute the general of one thousand men. The generals of the Armies of the Left and Right can[/FONT][FONT=&quot] execute the generals of ten thousand men. The Grand General has no one he cannot execute.’" [/FONT]
 
Last edited: