- Jun 2012
Who were the people who inhabited the territory corresponding to Mato Grosso do Sul in the conquest period? How they lived and were related? Were all the same or different cultures and societies supported? What would have led to the disappearance and the transfiguration mandatory that gave rise to the figure of the human element which we call Indian? Among the northwest and southwest regions of Mato Grosso do Sul, south of the former State of Mato Grosso, lies the Pantanal Mato Grosso do Sul, formed by low fields and wetlands that rivers flood every year. In this scenario marked by the exuberance of carandás, paratudos and buritis, moving in search of survivors lived tribes of different languages and customs, many of which, although showing variations ethno-cultural orientation had in common by the water cycle. Among these tribes were the canoeists and Payaguá Guató, people in Paraguay river had its main source of livelihood, it is only when away from their course flooded fields. Other sedentary groups, such as Guaná, Arauak language, preferred land sheltered and more amenable to cultivation, characterized as tribes of farmers, food producers and tissues. Neither inactive nor completely nomadic tribes such as the Guaicuru, also followed the flow of water following the game that was moving in the movement of flood and ebb tides. Living on land, these semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers constituted in bands of fierce warriors who caused apprehension among other native groups in the region, who were captives. In going and coming in bar of the water, while thousands of natives lived in different sociocultural settings, the Spaniards penetrated the interior of the continent using the mouth of the River Plate, confirming its main core occupation Assunpción in Paraguay. The tributaries of the Paraguay River arrived in the Amazon basin, where it started the conquest of the highlands of Central America. Once installed, having superior technology, the conquerors implanted exploitation colonialism, taking possession of new lands, plundering its riches and reshaping its inhabitants as colonial slaves, acting through the "eradication of the old local ruling class, the granting of land as landowners to the conquistadors, the adoption of forms of slavery conscription of manpower and deploying patriciates bureaucratic representatives of royal power, as taskmasters tax "(Ribeiro, 1978).Since then, under pressure of slavery, indigenous peoples have suffered major disruption in their natural evolutionary process, being remodeled by detribalisation and deculturation compulsory, losing most of their cultural heritage and can only create new habits when they do not collide with their production function within the colonial system (ibid.). Completed in increasingly smaller territories, or absorbed by the process of civilization, the native races were conducted ethnic-cultural transfiguration or complete extinction. The canoe Guató, for example, were still dominated in the colonial period. Later, during the Paraguayan War, fought and suffered attacks from both sides, being decimated in the following years by epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. The few remaining fishermen continued to live as lakes and holes in the upper Paraguay (Ribeiro, 1996).
The Guaná were also quickly dispersed. Reportedly the first half of the nineteenth century, was a part aldeada next to Paraguay; elsewhere, farther east on the River Miranda, had invaded their villages in clashes between Brazilians and Paraguayans. Over time, the scattered remnants attempted to return to places of origin, continuing to live in competition with cattle ranchers who occupied the region (ibid.). The Kinikinawa and Layana, for example, were compelled to work for those who took their land. The Terena, who had their villages dominated by liquor dealers, eventually becoming backland or being forced to move away from the fertile lands of Miranda, taking refuge on land unsuitable for agriculture and farmers for their condition.In a generalized way, all the native tribes who inhabited the region were extinct or deformed by the pressure of an overbearing and intolerant colonial model, expressed, "both for its geographical projection over the whole earth and in its ability to stop the parallel development of other processes civilizing "(Reddy, 1978).
In this scenario there were conflicting, however, one exception. A particular ethnic group was strengthened after contact with the colonizers. To do this, looted cultural property from their opponents, taking the horse, the spear and other weapons to use them in the use of hunting and war, improving their own socio-cultural structure and becoming a more resilient of the native tribes throughout America South In the sixteenth century, at the beginning of Spanish occupation, the natives who speak stormed the small towns that formed the resort town of creole and the Asunción, fighting fiercely, making captives and counter-attacking attempts at extermination and reduction taken by the invaders . Their raids expanded to ever wider territories, increasing his reputation as invincible warriors. Since "Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, close to Asuncion, Paraguay, and villages Chiriguano Andean slopes, in the Chaco, to the Guarani tribes, the woods bordering the Parana. Throughout this region not only attacked and pillaged indigenous groups, but also Spanish and Portuguese settlements, making them all captive. They came thus to be the main obstacle that the settlers had to face in the center of South America and their constant cause of concern. Well-equipped military expeditions were armed by the Portuguese and Spaniards to fight them without ever achieving complete success against these Indians knights who deeply know their territory and they knew every encounter escape might be unfavorable to them "(Ribeiro, 1996). Allied to canoeists Payaguá, acute attacks waged by land and water, such as those against the monsoon Sao Paulo who were heading to the gold of Matto Grosso, causing them more harm than all the other warring tribes together. Repelled further harassment of the Spanish ideology, key stakeholders in their domesticity, looting and destroying villages reductions and missionaries, refusing to conversion Salvationist and hindering the catechism of other tribes. Prevented the use of shortest paths between Asuncion and Peru, forcing travelers to divert the course of their journeys by tortuous paths, causing delay and prejudice to the colonial enterprise.
They felt contempt for the European race and prided themselves on being superior, returning to civilization the same ethnocentric and intolerant treatment dispensed to the native peoples. On this subject, Felix Azara, cited by Baldus, wrote: "believe the noblest nation in the world, the most generous, the most formal in the fulfillment of his word with all loyalty and the bravest. As its size, beauty and elegance of its forms and forces, are far superior to the Spanish, they consider the European race as very inferior to yours "(Boggiani, 1945).
The attribute they are also important holdings in episodes of Brazilian history, as "non-establishment of Paraguayans over the Apa River, at a time, first the Portuguese, after the Brazilians, it was physically impossible to stop him. In the course of the war with Paraguay actively fought alongside the Brazilian troops, but always independent, as a force apart, driven by their own motivations and putting the war in its own way "(Ribeiro, 1996).
In its historical trajectory, they resisted with great power of adaptation, even until the second half of the nineteenth century with the power to impose fear of enemies. They crossed the twentieth century while maintaining strong cultural traits able to reach the century retaining a degree of independence and ownership of a territorial reserve whose area lies within the city of Porto Murtinho (MS).
Today, they are represented by Kadiwéu, remnants of ancient tribes of the division-Mbayá Guaicuru. Survivors who, once again, trying to adapt to the civilizing process that continues to press them with intolerance and ethnocentrism, resisting the harassment of the surrounding society that still want to win their souls and take their lands.
Symbol of resistance against compulsory deculturation, the Kadiwéu have a history that the Brazilian people and the wold should know better, not only by the ferocity with which they were judged barbaric and cruel in the past - trace that civilization has experienced many times - but the ability to fight and adapt without losing their identity.
References: Boggiani, Guido. The Caduveo. Introduction Herbert Baldus. Foreword by G. A. COLINI. New York: Library Martins, 1945. Ribeiro, Darcy. The Indians and civilization: the integration of indigenous peoples in modern Brazil. 1. Reprint - New York: Ballantine Books, 1996. Ribeiro, Darcy. The civilizing process: anthropological studies of civilization; stages of socio-cultural. 4. Ed - Petropolis: Voices, 1978.
sorry for the mistakes I had to use the help of google translator and I a bit nervous I hope you enjoy. the historum has few articles about south america, it's time boys lets go South