Moeng Lu Kingdom ( Chiang Hung )

Feb 2019
14
UK
Moeng Lu Kingdom or Chiang Hung

Moeng Lu or Chiang Hung ( refereed by Chinese source as Cheli 車里 and by Burmese source as Chiang Rung က်ိဳင္းရံုး ) was one of the Tai principalities which formed during the medieval time . It situated on the Chinese side of infamous golden triangle . Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture is the core area of the former Moeng Lu Kingdom . It was mainly inhabited by Tai Lue people , who

Its first ruler Phya Coeng was vassal of Deli Kingdom . Once Deli falled to Mongols and , during later successive Chinese dynasties , it pledged oath of allegiance to Heavenly Court ( Chinese Empire ) . Ming and Qing empire regarded Moeng Lu ( Cheli ) as one of its aboriginal office ( tusi ) ( like many other native states on its frontier as in sino-centric perspective ) namely Che-li Military and Civilian Pacification Superintendency . However , Moeng lu vassalage was not limited to emperor of China . It submitted to Bayinnaung of Toungoo Empire ( Burma ) in 1560s .

Since then , The ruling house of Moeng Lu had the blessing and protection of two overlords , Burma and China . It sent tributes to both and was required to ask for the consent from both whenever the new Saewi Fa ( ruler ) ascended the throne of Moeng Lu . Later in the 19 th century , it had to endure many interventions from Burmese and Chinese overlords in its succession affairs .

Saenwi fa ( king ) of Moeng Lu stayed at Chiang Rung ( at Chiang Lan before 1458 ) which is modern-day Jinghong . Including Chiang Rung itself , there were 12 panna , each of them functioned as own polity with rulers . There were occassional power srtruggle between them . Moeng Lu bordered Moeng Maen to the north and Moeng Laem to the west and Sipsong Chu Tai to the east . Its southern neighbors were Chiang Tung , Chiang Khaeng and Moeng Yong . Its existence as polity ended in 1950 .

For further details on this interesting kingdom , I would recommend
- Chronicle of Sipsong Panna: History and Society of a Tai Lu Kingdom by Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Author), Volker Grabowsky (Author), Renoo Wichasin
- Ming Shi-lu
- Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü https://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64424.pdf

This is the At a Glance video on brief history of Moeng Lu .

<iframe width="560" height="315" src="
" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
 

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Feb 2019
14
UK
It is a Shan state , but of different Shan . They are Tai Lue people .

Keng Tung ( Chiang Tung ) is Tai Khün state . Mong Mao and surrounding shan states like Bhamo are of Maw Shan ( Tai Mao ) . The largest group of Shans are Tai Yai .

Burmese called Moeng Lu as 12 panna of Lue Shans ( လူးရွမ္း ) referring every panna or just simply Chiang Rung ( က်ိဳင္းရံုး ) .
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
What was the internal social and administrative structure of Moeng Lu?
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
So the panna were basically districts ruled by hereditary lords, and Chiang Rung was the most powerful ruled by the king?

Do we have the names of the panna?
 
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Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
Moeng Lu Kingdom or Chiang Hung

Moeng Lu or Chiang Hung ( refereed by Chinese source as Cheli 車里 and by Burmese source as Chiang Rung က်ိဳင္းရံုး ) was one of the Tai principalities which formed during the medieval time . It situated on the Chinese side of infamous golden triangle . Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture is the core area of the former Moeng Lu Kingdom . It was mainly inhabited by Tai Lue people , who

Its first ruler Phya Coeng was vassal of Deli Kingdom . Once Deli falled to Mongols and , during later successive Chinese dynasties , it pledged oath of allegiance to Heavenly Court ( Chinese Empire ) . Ming and Qing empire regarded Moeng Lu ( Cheli ) as one of its aboriginal office ( tusi ) ( like many other native states on its frontier as in sino-centric perspective ) namely Che-li Military and Civilian Pacification Superintendency . However , Moeng lu vassalage was not limited to emperor of China . It submitted to Bayinnaung of Toungoo Empire ( Burma ) in 1560s .

Since then , The ruling house of Moeng Lu had the blessing and protection of two overlords , Burma and China . It sent tributes to both and was required to ask for the consent from both whenever the new Saewi Fa ( ruler ) ascended the throne of Moeng Lu . Later in the 19 th century , it had to endure many interventions from Burmese and Chinese overlords in its succession affairs .

Saenwi fa ( king ) of Moeng Lu stayed at Chiang Rung ( at Chiang Lan before 1458 ) which is modern-day Jinghong . Including Chiang Rung itself , there were 12 panna , each of them functioned as own polity with rulers . There were occassional power srtruggle between them . Moeng Lu bordered Moeng Maen to the north and Moeng Laem to the west and Sipsong Chu Tai to the east . Its southern neighbors were Chiang Tung , Chiang Khaeng and Moeng Yong . Its existence as polity ended in 1950 .

For further details on this interesting kingdom , I would recommend
- Chronicle of Sipsong Panna: History and Society of a Tai Lu Kingdom by Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Author), Volker Grabowsky (Author), Renoo Wichasin
- Ming Shi-lu
- Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü https://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64424.pdf

This is the At a Glance video on brief history of Moeng Lu .

<iframe width="560" height="315" src="
" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
So looking at the video we get the following panna:
Chiang Lan/Chiang Rung (ruled by the king)
Chiang Lo
Chiang Tong
Moeng Cae
Moeng Hai
Moeng Hing
Moeng Hun
Moeng La (in the north; lost by 1834)
Moeng La (in the south)
Moeng Long
Moeng Phong
Moeng U-Nua (ceded to the French in 1895)
Moeng U-Tai (established c. 1570; ceded to the French in 1895)

Did they also have sub-rulers under them?
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
Each panna was formed by few moengs or population centers or towns , so each of then should have own chief or village head or ruler as well . But they are not autonomous enough to be counted as a polity .
Panna would be the smallest unit to be counted as a polity or entity ( if we consider imperial valley or lordship or princely abbey as a separate entity ) .

Each of the twelve panna had its own hereditary line of rulers , many of them in no doubt were related to the main house of Chiang Rung due to intermarriage . Some of them have their own chronicles recorded .
Chaing Rung is where the highest authority among them resided ( the most populous center ). So Burmese very often identify the polity as a whole as Chiang Rung .
But when tributes were sent to Burmese , each of the twelve panna sent its own tribute which is interesting rather than as a whole , in theory indicating each autonomy and status .

Images : centers of 12 pannas changed with time , and the tributes sent by each panna were recorded as well .
 

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Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
Each panna was formed by few moengs or population centers or towns , so each of then should have own chief or village head or ruler as well . But they are not autonomous enough to be counted as a polity .
Panna would be the smallest unit to be counted as a polity or entity ( if we consider imperial valley or lordship or princely abbey as a separate entity ) .

Each of the twelve panna had its own hereditary line of rulers , many of them in no doubt were related to the main house of Chiang Rung due to intermarriage . Some of them have their own chronicles recorded .
Chaing Rung is where the highest authority among them resided ( the most populous center ). So Burmese very often identify the polity as a whole as Chiang Rung .
But when tributes were sent to Burmese , each of the twelve panna sent its own tribute which is interesting rather than as a whole , in theory indicating each autonomy and status .

Images : centers of 12 pannas changed with time , and the tributes sent by each panna were recorded as well .
So it was basically a 3-tier administrative organization. Were village chiefs hereditary?

That's interesting about the tribute and fairly unusual. I wonder if that was because the Chiang Rung had little control over the sub-rulers and were more the heads of a federation or because it was just easier in the long run to do it that way?
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
I honestly do not know regarding hereditary village heads of Moeng Lu .
However , in Burmese administrative system almost all the rulers down to the level of the village heads were hereditary . The whole system was build up on the web of gentry lineages which determined hereditary status that dictated what a person would serve in what role in the system . Even whether a person would serve in a cavalry or royal navy or household guards were more of a hereditary rights . So if it is considered Moeng Lu would follow that similar or near-similar system presumably then it would be hereditary . In shan states and Thai states were of pretty much similar system as well .

In terms of political control , Chiang Rung did not have direct control over other pannas . Even as a strong ruler , he would have the control through the proxy by the submission of the ruler of each panna .
Whatever the ruler of Chiang Rung's power waned , panna would try to assert their autonomy .
However , as in other shan states , each panna was formed of moeng which originally were fortified town center in a plain or valley of the shan hills and Yunan plateau .
Chiang Rung sat on the largest arable plain , which would provide largest manpower which could be the reason why its position as the head of the league did not change over hundred of years . Other panna did have manpower and production limitations defined by their location to switch the centre of power .

Panna were there even before they submitted to Burma or China . It followed the similar patterns of othe shan states too .
It might be natural choice of administration and politics for the region .