Moeng Lu Kingdom ( Chiang Hung )

Feb 2019
14
UK
#1
Moeng Lu Kingdom or Chiang Hung

Moeng Lu or Chiang Hung ( refereed by Chinese source as Cheli 車里 and by Burmese source as Chiang Rung က်ိဳင္းရံုး ) was one of the Tai principalities which formed during the medieval time . It situated on the Chinese side of infamous golden triangle . Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture is the core area of the former Moeng Lu Kingdom . It was mainly inhabited by Tai Lue people , who

Its first ruler Phya Coeng was vassal of Deli Kingdom . Once Deli falled to Mongols and , during later successive Chinese dynasties , it pledged oath of allegiance to Heavenly Court ( Chinese Empire ) . Ming and Qing empire regarded Moeng Lu ( Cheli ) as one of its aboriginal office ( tusi ) ( like many other native states on its frontier as in sino-centric perspective ) namely Che-li Military and Civilian Pacification Superintendency . However , Moeng lu vassalage was not limited to emperor of China . It submitted to Bayinnaung of Toungoo Empire ( Burma ) in 1560s .

Since then , The ruling house of Moeng Lu had the blessing and protection of two overlords , Burma and China . It sent tributes to both and was required to ask for the consent from both whenever the new Saewi Fa ( ruler ) ascended the throne of Moeng Lu . Later in the 19 th century , it had to endure many interventions from Burmese and Chinese overlords in its succession affairs .

Saenwi fa ( king ) of Moeng Lu stayed at Chiang Rung ( at Chiang Lan before 1458 ) which is modern-day Jinghong . Including Chiang Rung itself , there were 12 panna , each of them functioned as own polity with rulers . There were occassional power srtruggle between them . Moeng Lu bordered Moeng Maen to the north and Moeng Laem to the west and Sipsong Chu Tai to the east . Its southern neighbors were Chiang Tung , Chiang Khaeng and Moeng Yong . Its existence as polity ended in 1950 .

For further details on this interesting kingdom , I would recommend
- Chronicle of Sipsong Panna: History and Society of a Tai Lu Kingdom by Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Author), Volker Grabowsky (Author), Renoo Wichasin
- Ming Shi-lu
- Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü https://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64424.pdf

This is the At a Glance video on brief history of Moeng Lu .

<iframe width="560" height="315" src="
" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
 

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Feb 2019
14
UK
#3
It is a Shan state , but of different Shan . They are Tai Lue people .

Keng Tung ( Chiang Tung ) is Tai Khün state . Mong Mao and surrounding shan states like Bhamo are of Maw Shan ( Tai Mao ) . The largest group of Shans are Tai Yai .

Burmese called Moeng Lu as 12 panna of Lue Shans ( လူးရွမ္း ) referring every panna or just simply Chiang Rung ( က်ိဳင္းရံုး ) .
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,750
United States
#5
So the panna were basically districts ruled by hereditary lords, and Chiang Rung was the most powerful ruled by the king?

Do we have the names of the panna?
 
Last edited:

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,750
United States
#7
Moeng Lu Kingdom or Chiang Hung

Moeng Lu or Chiang Hung ( refereed by Chinese source as Cheli 車里 and by Burmese source as Chiang Rung က်ိဳင္းရံုး ) was one of the Tai principalities which formed during the medieval time . It situated on the Chinese side of infamous golden triangle . Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture is the core area of the former Moeng Lu Kingdom . It was mainly inhabited by Tai Lue people , who

Its first ruler Phya Coeng was vassal of Deli Kingdom . Once Deli falled to Mongols and , during later successive Chinese dynasties , it pledged oath of allegiance to Heavenly Court ( Chinese Empire ) . Ming and Qing empire regarded Moeng Lu ( Cheli ) as one of its aboriginal office ( tusi ) ( like many other native states on its frontier as in sino-centric perspective ) namely Che-li Military and Civilian Pacification Superintendency . However , Moeng lu vassalage was not limited to emperor of China . It submitted to Bayinnaung of Toungoo Empire ( Burma ) in 1560s .

Since then , The ruling house of Moeng Lu had the blessing and protection of two overlords , Burma and China . It sent tributes to both and was required to ask for the consent from both whenever the new Saewi Fa ( ruler ) ascended the throne of Moeng Lu . Later in the 19 th century , it had to endure many interventions from Burmese and Chinese overlords in its succession affairs .

Saenwi fa ( king ) of Moeng Lu stayed at Chiang Rung ( at Chiang Lan before 1458 ) which is modern-day Jinghong . Including Chiang Rung itself , there were 12 panna , each of them functioned as own polity with rulers . There were occassional power srtruggle between them . Moeng Lu bordered Moeng Maen to the north and Moeng Laem to the west and Sipsong Chu Tai to the east . Its southern neighbors were Chiang Tung , Chiang Khaeng and Moeng Yong . Its existence as polity ended in 1950 .

For further details on this interesting kingdom , I would recommend
- Chronicle of Sipsong Panna: History and Society of a Tai Lu Kingdom by Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Author), Volker Grabowsky (Author), Renoo Wichasin
- Ming Shi-lu
- Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü https://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64424.pdf

This is the At a Glance video on brief history of Moeng Lu .

<iframe width="560" height="315" src="
" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
So looking at the video we get the following panna:
Chiang Lan/Chiang Rung (ruled by the king)
Chiang Lo
Chiang Tong
Moeng Cae
Moeng Hai
Moeng Hing
Moeng Hun
Moeng La (in the north; lost by 1834)
Moeng La (in the south)
Moeng Long
Moeng Phong
Moeng U-Nua (ceded to the French in 1895)
Moeng U-Tai (established c. 1570; ceded to the French in 1895)

Did they also have sub-rulers under them?
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
#8
Each panna was formed by few moengs or population centers or towns , so each of then should have own chief or village head or ruler as well . But they are not autonomous enough to be counted as a polity .
Panna would be the smallest unit to be counted as a polity or entity ( if we consider imperial valley or lordship or princely abbey as a separate entity ) .

Each of the twelve panna had its own hereditary line of rulers , many of them in no doubt were related to the main house of Chiang Rung due to intermarriage . Some of them have their own chronicles recorded .
Chaing Rung is where the highest authority among them resided ( the most populous center ). So Burmese very often identify the polity as a whole as Chiang Rung .
But when tributes were sent to Burmese , each of the twelve panna sent its own tribute which is interesting rather than as a whole , in theory indicating each autonomy and status .

Images : centers of 12 pannas changed with time , and the tributes sent by each panna were recorded as well .
 

Attachments

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,750
United States
#9
Each panna was formed by few moengs or population centers or towns , so each of then should have own chief or village head or ruler as well . But they are not autonomous enough to be counted as a polity .
Panna would be the smallest unit to be counted as a polity or entity ( if we consider imperial valley or lordship or princely abbey as a separate entity ) .

Each of the twelve panna had its own hereditary line of rulers , many of them in no doubt were related to the main house of Chiang Rung due to intermarriage . Some of them have their own chronicles recorded .
Chaing Rung is where the highest authority among them resided ( the most populous center ). So Burmese very often identify the polity as a whole as Chiang Rung .
But when tributes were sent to Burmese , each of the twelve panna sent its own tribute which is interesting rather than as a whole , in theory indicating each autonomy and status .

Images : centers of 12 pannas changed with time , and the tributes sent by each panna were recorded as well .
So it was basically a 3-tier administrative organization. Were village chiefs hereditary?

That's interesting about the tribute and fairly unusual. I wonder if that was because the Chiang Rung had little control over the sub-rulers and were more the heads of a federation or because it was just easier in the long run to do it that way?
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
#10
I honestly do not know regarding hereditary village heads of Moeng Lu .
However , in Burmese administrative system almost all the rulers down to the level of the village heads were hereditary . The whole system was build up on the web of gentry lineages which determined hereditary status that dictated what a person would serve in what role in the system . Even whether a person would serve in a cavalry or royal navy or household guards were more of a hereditary rights . So if it is considered Moeng Lu would follow that similar or near-similar system presumably then it would be hereditary . In shan states and Thai states were of pretty much similar system as well .

In terms of political control , Chiang Rung did not have direct control over other pannas . Even as a strong ruler , he would have the control through the proxy by the submission of the ruler of each panna .
Whatever the ruler of Chiang Rung's power waned , panna would try to assert their autonomy .
However , as in other shan states , each panna was formed of moeng which originally were fortified town center in a plain or valley of the shan hills and Yunan plateau .
Chiang Rung sat on the largest arable plain , which would provide largest manpower which could be the reason why its position as the head of the league did not change over hundred of years . Other panna did have manpower and production limitations defined by their location to switch the centre of power .

Panna were there even before they submitted to Burma or China . It followed the similar patterns of othe shan states too .
It might be natural choice of administration and politics for the region .
 

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