Most powerful empires of each century

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
5,138
Portugal
The fact, the reality is Sugar-Cane was not planted by Dutch, British or French.. but Spaniards.. exactly Don Pedro de Atienza in the island Hispaniola in the year 1501.
Since they had that experience at least from the Canary islands, as the Portuguese had in Madeira and Porto Santo, that probably arrived to the Iberian Peninsula trough the Muslims or trough Cyprus, it is normal that they introduced it in that clime.
 

martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,251
Spain
Since they had that experience at least from the Canary islands, as the Portuguese had in Madeira and Porto Santo, that probably arrived to the Iberian Peninsula trough the Muslims or trough Cyprus, it is normal that they introduced it in that clime.
Sugar-cane came from Andalusia, exactly from Málaga-Motril area. And you are right. It was introduced first in Canary and later in America.
And you are right. Portuguese also were pioneers in sugar-cane. But not French, Dutch or British.
 
Mar 2016
914
Australia
6th to 5th centuries BC: Persian Empire
4th century BC: Macedonian Empire
3rd century BC: Seleucid Empire
2nd century BC to 6th century AD: Roman Empire
7th century AD: Umayyad Caliphate
8th to 9th centuries AD: Abbasid Caliphate
10th century AD: Fatimid Caliphate
11th century AD: Seljuk Empire
12th century AD: Almohad Caliphate
13th to 14th centuries AD: Mongol Empire(s)
15th to 18th centuries AD: Ottoman Empire
19th to 20th centuries AD: British Empire
 
Aug 2016
925
Ireland, Dublin
Not really a fan of Britan, but the British Empire for sure, as they have even covered much of the Earth (please no debates on whether or not the Mongol Empire was bigger, it doesn't matter).
 
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Jan 2016
1,099
Victoria, Canada
10th century Caliphate of Cordoba. Military and economically a monster.
I'm not sure if you're entirely serious, but in terms of military and economy, as well as population, the Byzantine Empire was straight up better than the Caliphate, just like the Song were straight up better than the Byzantines. If it existed in its 10th century form during the 9th century, it might be a contender, but regardless it would have to compete with a, still larger, Byzantine empire, as well as Chinese states with more than twice its population.

The Caliphate was certainly exceptional by contemporary western european standards, undoubtedly being the foremost regional power, and the city of Cordoba itself wouldn't have a western european rival for centuries, but on a world scale I think, optimistically, it gets third place (As usual though, there's likely an Indian state in there somewhere as well, namely the Cholas from the research I've done).
 
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Frank81

Ad Honorem
Feb 2010
4,985
Canary Islands-Spain
At the 10th century, advantage to the Byzantine Empire was not that clear.


They were similar in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitatively.
 
Jan 2016
1,099
Victoria, Canada
At the 10th century, advantage to the Byzantine Empire was not that clear.


They were similar in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitatively.
Byzantine population in 969: 14+ million (extrapolated from a figure of 20 mil from Basil II's reign)

Cordoban population at their height: 7~ million

I think one has a pretty clear advantage here, especially considering the vastly more efficient administration of the Byzantine empire.

In military terms, I don't know too much about the Cordoban army, but I would be willing to bet that it wasn't 200,000 strong and mostly made up of fully professional soldiers. It also likely didn't possess proper liquid fire, nor the consistently exceptional commanders that defined the 10th century Byzantine army.
 
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Frank81

Ad Honorem
Feb 2010
4,985
Canary Islands-Spain
Byzantine population in 969: 14+ million (extrapolated from a figure of 20 mil from Basil II's reign)

Cordoban population at their height: 7~ million

I think one has a pretty clear advantage here, especially considering the vastly more efficient administration of the Byzantine empire.

In military terms, I don't know too much about the Cordoban army, but I would be willing to bet that it wasn't 200,000 strong and mostly made up of fully professional soldiers. It also likely didn't possess proper liquid fire, nor the consistently exceptional commanders that defined the 10th century Byzantine army.

By mid 10th century, Byzantine population was more in the order of 9 million, while peaked in early 11th century at 12 million people.

In mid 10th century, Abd-al-Rahman Caliphate, yearly revenues amounted 5,480,000 gold dinars = 23.2 tons of gold equivalent (4.25 gold grams per dinar), and 20 million gold dinars in treasure (85 tons equivalent).

The Byzantine Empire revenues at 959 were lightly inferior, at 4,000,000 nomismata = 18 tons of gold equivalent (4.5 grams per solidus). Basil II left, at 1025, a treasure of 14.4 million nomismata = 63 tons of gold equivalent.


In regard to administration, the Cordoban Caliphate was not much behind the Byzantine Empire, with centralized tax collection, civil servants and ministries.

In regard to military, the Caliphate developed a very strong armed force, a cause of its fall actually. Its navy, permanent, posseses naphta bombs; there were permanent military provinces with border troops, a territorial army (Jund) of feudal levy numbering 22,000 and a central professional army of different size through the ages. At the time of Abd-al-Rahman III, his professional guards were 12,000, while some news talk about 40,000 paid men.

Information is sparce, but Almanzonr expanded this force with many more mercenary units: 12,000 Northafrican cavalrymen, 5,000 Andalusian cavalrymen and 40,000 infantrymen in one of his expeditions. This man, Almanzor, was one of the greatest military commanders of the age.

In mid 10th century, just two state factories in Cordoba produced 12,000 bows, 240,000 arrows, 1,300 shields and 3,000 tents yearly. The Caliphate had its cavalry fields where animals grew to serve in the army.

...

Information is fragmentary, but as I said, the Caliphate wasn't that much behind the Byzantines.
 
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