Names used by foreigners for the Byzantine Empire?

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,969
Republika Srpska
Do you mean the part about the Latin Empire?
I assume the like means yes.

So, the Serbian King Stefan the First-Crowned wrote a biography of his father, Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja (later monk Simeon) and in that biography he also wrote about events that happened during his reign after Nemanja abdicated.

He wrote:
"the Blasphemous One incited two emperors against me, the Hungarian king named Andrija and the Greek Emperor called Jeris Filandar"
King Andrija is of course Andrew II of Hungary, but who is this Greek Emperor Jeris Filandar?
Stefan gives us the answer when he mentioned Filandar again:
"the law-breaking Bulgarian emperor Boril, who lived nearby, was jealous for his lawlessness was open to the world and indeed it surpassed the lawlessness of Herod. He rose with his power and with him was his son-in-law, Greek emperor Filandar who was in the glorious city of Constantine"
So, this Filandar was the ruler of Constantinople and also helped Boril against Stefan. Well, there is only one person who did that: Latin Emperor Henry of Flanders. And Filandar sounds rather similar to Flanders. And he was explicitly called the Greek Emperor despite obviously being a Latin ruler.

This might seem weird, but it is likely that in the minds of medieval Serb writers, anyone holding Constantinople could claim to be the rightful "Greek emperor" because Greek Emperors always ruled from Constantinople.
 

At Each Kilometer

Ad Honorem
Sep 2012
4,132
Bulgaria
Henry of Flanders was not son-in-law of Boril, but of Kaloyan. Technically Henry's spouse was a stepdaughter of Boril, because he married the widow of Kaloyan.

Idd, during late medieval period / after the Fall of Constantinople to crusaders Greek was used on the Balkans to refer Byzantines. Stefan Dushan for example assumed the title Autokrator of Serbs and Greeks, whilst Ivan Asen II claimed the title Tsar (local variant of Ceaser/Kaisar) of Bulgarians and Greeks.
 
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Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,969
Republika Srpska
Henry of Flanders was not son-in-law of Boril, but of Kaloyan. Technically Henry's spouse was a stepdaughter of Boril, because he married the widow of Kaloyan.
So, in a sense, he was Boril's son-in-law. But it is clear Stefan's Jeris Filandar is Henry of Flanders, even if this relation is not correct. He was the ruler of Constantinople who helped Boril against Serbia.
 

Solidaire

Ad Honorem
Aug 2009
5,740
Athens, Greece
“Greek is like a linguistic Lego”.

More so than English? How compare to English & Latin?
Hmm, now that you mention it, English is another set of Lego too. ;)

I don't know Latin, but I think German has that characteristic as well. Perhaps all languages do, I don't really know.
 
Sep 2016
629
天下
The Byzantine Empire was instead called "FuLin".
Byzantine Empire in Chinese sources had several names over centuries.

The oldest one is 普嵐 Pulan (Middle Chinese *Phuo lam), a bit later 伏盧尼 Fuluni (MC *Biuk luo ni), then 拂懍/拂臨/拂菻 all Fulin (MC *Phiut lim). They all seem to stem from some Iranic variant like Frwm/Frōm/Purum/Prom/Hrōm/Hrūm.
The same designation appears in Old Turkic as Purum.

The second syllable is likely to be equivalent of Rome, but does anyone have an idea from where the initial p/f/h came from?
 
Oct 2017
385
America ??
Hmm, now that you mention it, English is another set of Lego too. ;)

I don't know Latin, but I think German has that characteristic as well. Perhaps all languages do, I don't really know.
Indeed. Simply sticking words together seems to be at the heart of human language itself, as well as non human languages like coding & science.

BUT, a very important distinction is that some languages allow for much more linguistic modification, manipulation & acrobatics than others, most notably Indo-European & Semitic with Asian & Australasian Languages.
 

Kirialax

Ad Honorem
Dec 2009
4,959
Blachernai
The eleventh-century Armenian churchman and chronicler Aristakes referred to the Byzantines as Հոռոնոց (horonots), a term that goes back to antiquity and simply means "Romans."
 
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Aug 2019
101
Livingston 62° 38′ 27″ S, 60° 22′ 0.98″ W
Byzantine Empire in Chinese sources had several names over centuries.

The oldest one is 普嵐 Pulan (Middle Chinese *Phuo lam), a bit later 伏盧尼 Fuluni (MC *Biuk luo ni), then 拂懍/拂臨/拂菻 all Fulin (MC *Phiut lim). They all seem to stem from some Iranic variant like Frwm/Frōm/Purum/Prom/Hrōm/Hrūm.
The same designation appears in Old Turkic as Purum.

The second syllable is likely to be equivalent of Rome, but does anyone have an idea from where the initial p/f/h came from?
Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand ethnic Greeks who inhabit a few villages in Georgia and Southeastern Ukraine. Over the past few generations, there has been a deviation from teaching children Urum to the more common languages of the region, leaving a fairly limited number of new speakers. The Urum language is often considered a variant of Crimean Tatar.

The name Urum is derived from Rûm ("Rome"), the term for the Byzantine Empire in the Muslim world. The Ottoman Empire used it to describe non-Muslims within the empire. The initial vowel in Urum is prosthetic. Turkic languages originally did not have /ɾ/ in the word-initial position and so in borrowed words, it used to add a vowel before it. The common use of the term Urum appears to have led to some confusion, as most Turkish-speaking Greeks were called Urum. The Turkish-speaking population in Georgia is often confused with the distinct community in Ukraine. Urum language - Wikipedia
 
Dec 2019
78
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Swedish merchants who arrived in Constantinople in the 9th century called the city Miklagård "the big city". I cannot find anything about what they called the rest of the empire.
Most likely, they were so impressed by the magnificent buildings of the city and its huge defenses that Miklagård became synonymous with the entire empire.
Aaah. . . "Swedish merchants in the 9th century" -- I love it! I also love your Cicero quote. I might get that on my tombstone.
 
Dec 2019
78
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
The eleventh-century Armenian churchman and chronicler Aristakes referred to the Byzantines as Հոռոնոց (horonots), a term that goes back to antiquity and simply means "Romans."
I read this post, clicked "like", and then realized that it was you. . . Kirialax. Hmmmm. . .