On Russian losses, the vast majoirty of caualties on both sides were non battle casualties. Ruusian soldiers who dropped oout of effetcive strength were a lt closer to some sort suitabel place to recover than the french. The death rate for Russian soldiers droppingout of effetcive strngth is going to be a lot less than the French,1. I think you are missing my point here. I was talking about death toll due to logistics, not casualties in general. My point is that Russia suffered as well as the French in that campaign (if not more due to civilian losses).
2. Wounded generally did not returned to the ranks : they usually died after the battle. And remember that "only" 200,000 russians could participate in the following campaigns out of 623,000 according to Beskrovny. And this counting reinforcements…
3. After it’s a battle of sources. Many sources state that only 450,000 men crossed the Niemen (Lentz, Tarle, Markham) which is clearly incompatible with Zamoyski. You are sure about Lieven ?
4. For example, according to Sokolov, the russian army lost 300,000 men, including 175,000 in combat.
5. About the French losses, they are usually overestimated. According to a statistical analysis (the only one I’m aware of) on the French and French allies matricules (they analysed 1 on 500 which is quite robust given the hundreds of thousands), sorry in French only — Pertes de l'armée de terre sous le premier Empire, d'après les registres matricules. - Persée p.45, here are the results for the russian campaign (in thousands) :
They are stating that figures can be perfected and a good estimation is 270,000 men that did not came back of Russia which is far from 550,000.
KIA or death after WIA — French 5 KIA or death after WIA — French allies 2 Missing and prisoners that did not come back — French 147 Missing and prisoners that did not come back — French allies 61 Death in hospitals — French 19 Death in hospitals — French allies 9 Scratch out in hospitals — French — Scratch out in hospitals — French allies — Total — French 171 Total — French allies 72 Grand total 243
The main point is that around 120,000 men "only" participated to the retreat. A big part of the men deserted before and did not say that they returned until a census for a pension in 1853 show it.
1 in 500. How did they make it representative sample There's all sorts of way their sample could be not representative.
Whats the exact methodology.