Native Americans in South America

Feb 2018
107
Various places
Altrough assimilation programs ended very late, it was not uniform in his execution, so you have periods of no goverment intervention to times with heavy intervention, after WWII probably the most heavy hand was done by the military dictatorship(1964-1985), there we can find, native americans losing rights to expulsion from ancestral lands and even massacre in reality modern estimates point that more native americans died in brazilian military rule, than members of political opposition.
That's very unfortunate, but interesting to know. I'm not at all familiar with that period of Brazilian history, my knowledge doesn't go much farther than the Villas-Boas brothers and the Xingu Indigenous Park. The only thing I know about it during the military dictatorship era is that the Belo Monte Dam project on the Xingu River was started. I'm not sure what effect that situation has on the park these days...
 
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Tairusiano

Ad Honorem
Jun 2012
2,975
Brazil
That's very unfortunate, but interesting to know. I'm not at all familiar with that period of Brazilian history, my knowledge doesn't go much farther than the Villas-Boas brothers and the Xingu Indigenous Park. The only thing I know about it during the military dictatorship era is that the Belo Monte Dam project on the Xingu River was started. I'm not sure what effect that situation has on the park these days...
It is interesting to study, the impact the military rule have over native americans.
I found some articles in english about the death of some native americans.
Brazil's 'lost report' into genocide surfaces after 40 years
Brazil — Waimiri-Atroari indigenous massacre | Latin America Bureau
 
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Yôḥānān

Ad Honorem
Feb 2012
3,888
Portugal
Various, but initially lack of european womans, but also a political movement, marrying a native would put you in his family that means, you can gain the friendship and loyalty of his village or tribe and even his support in wars, this is ofcourse in the start of colonization but the practize become so widespread that even after his uselfulness ended, it was considered a normal thing.
people didn't saw it as wrong, and it also helped in assimilation.
Don't know how much practical effect it had but it was still being promoted in the 18th century by king José by ensuring the rights of the descendants of such marriages and forbiding the discriminating term of "caboclo" , and there are two intersting features in the alvará and the above article, that marriages between Portuguese women and the natives were ecouraged and that it was also a way to weaken the Jesuits by integrating the natives.

Also untill today in Portugal it is not legaly possible to do the same kind of racial discrimination you see in US census, don't know when this practice was instituted but it was mentioned in a recent article unrelated to this topic sugesting that it was already there in the New State.
 
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Tairusiano

Ad Honorem
Jun 2012
2,975
Brazil
Don't know how much practical effect it had but it was still being promoted in the 18th century by king José by ensuring the rights of the descendants of such marriages and forbiding the discriminating term of "caboclo" , and there are two intersting features in the alvará and the above article, that marriages between Portuguese women and the natives were ecouraged and that it was also a way to weaken the Jesuits by integrating the natives.

Also untill today in Portugal it is not legaly possible to do the same kind of racial discrimination you see in US census, don't know when this practice was instituted but it was mentioned in a recent article unrelated to this topic sugesting that it was already there in the New State.
Interesting text, a funny thing that happened in Brasil was that people here thought that the Crown was too lenient to the native-americans, because a lot of things the Portuguese court put a limit to the locals "expansion dreams", in 1758 when native american slavery was abolished, in Minas Gerais, then the colony heart, colonial soldiers freed the natives that were slaves this caused a scandal in the local society with people here criticizing the Portuguese oppression against the good folks in the name of the natives.
 
May 2019
174
Earth
As others have said, the Spanish were more interested in converting the natives into docile Christian subjects of the Spanish crown rather than completely eliminating them from their lands. This had both good and bad sides, imo. On the one hand, Spain was pretty progressive for 16th century European colonial powers in passing the New Laws of 1542 which intended to eliminate the enslavement of indigenous Americans and even give them some protections that, as far as I know, were not afforded to Spaniards back in Spain (for example, the New Laws prohibited enslavement of indigenous Americans even in cases of war or crime). Unfortunately, these laws were not widely followed by the Spanish in South America, and even led to a revolt by Spanish landowners in Peru, notably involving Gonzalo Pizarro. Additionally, Spanish rule in South America was very intolerant of indigenous American religious traditions, and Spanish officials and priests did all they could to eliminate native beliefs in place of Catholicism. I think this combination of accommodation and intolerance of indigenous Americans by Spain led to the situation we see today in Latin-America: more numerous indigenous populations than north of the Rio Grande, but an overall dominance of Christianity and European culture.