Naval powers at the start of WW2

pikeshot1600

Ad Honoris
Jul 2009
10,084
The IJN Treaty Cruisers:

These are the "8" gun cruisers referenced in the Washington Treaty of 1922. The IJN had numerous light cruisers with 5.5" guns, but these were all "5,000 T" developments from their 3,200 T 1918 Tenryu class.

In November and December, 1922, the IJN laid down two cruisers of 9,150 T which were both larger, faster and more heavily armed than either the Royal Navy's Hawkins class cruisers (1916-1924), and the only new cruisers the USN had built since 1908, the ten Omaha class 6" gun cruisers, which were essentially obsolete when launched.

1) Furutaka class: (9,150 T)

Kako laid down Nov., 1922 (Kawasaki) commissioned July, 1926.

Furutaka laid down Dec., 1922 (Mitsubishi) commissioned March, 1926.

Speed: 33 to 34.5 kt.

Armament: 6 x 1 - 7.87" (rendered 7.9") guns. These were all in single mounts until the ships were modernized in the 1930s when new 8" guns were fitted (3 x 2). Eight 24" torpedo tubes, 2 x 4.

2) Aoba class: (9,380 T)

Kinugasa laid down Jan., 1924. Commissioned Sept., 1927.

Aoba laid down Feb., 1924. Commissioned Sept., 1927.

Speed: 34 kt.

Armament: 3 x 2 - 7.9" guns. New 8" guns fitted 1930s. Eight 24" torpedo tubes, 2 x 4.

3) Myoko class: (13,380 T)

Myoko laid down Oct., 1924. Commissioned July, 1929.

Nachi laid down Nov., 1924. Commissioned Nov., 1928.

Haguro laid down Mar., 1925. Commissioned Apr., 1929.

Ashigara laid down Apr., 1925. Commissioned Aug., 1929.

Speed: 35.5 kt.

Armament: 5 x 2 - 7.9" guns. New 8" guns fitted 1930s. 16 - 24" torpedo tubes 4 x 4.

4) Takao class: (13,160 T)

Takao laid down Apr., 1927. Commissioned May, 1932.

Atago laid down Apr., 1927. Commissioned Mar., 1932.

Chokai laid down Mar., 1928. Commissioned June, 1932.

Maya laid down Dec., 1928. Commissioned June, 1932.

Speed: as Myoko class.

Armament: as Myoko class.

5) Mogami class: (built as 8,500 T light cruisers with 15 - 6.1" guns; converted as 12,400 T heavy cruisers in 1939)

Mogami laid down Oct., 1931. Commissioned July, 1935.

Mikuma laid down Dec., 1931. Commissioned May, 1934.

Suzuya laid down Dec., 1933. Commissioned Oct., 1937.

Kumano laid down Apr., 1934. Commissioned Oct., 1937.

Speed: 37 kt.

Armament: As designed, 5 x 3 - 6.1" guns. As converted, 5 x 2 - 8" guns. 12 - 24" torpedo tubes 4 x 3.

6) Tone class: (11,215 T) theses two ships were laid down as CL with 6.1" guns and completed as CA after the withdrawal of Japan from the disarmament treaties.

Tone (1937) and Chikuma (1938) - speed 35 kt, and armament 4 x 2 - 8" guns and 4 x 3 - 24" Torpedo tubes.
 
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Oct 2015
999
Virginia
Totally. One objective of the London Naval Limitations Treaty of 1930 was to get the "Treaty Cruiser" race under control (at least for the US, UK and Japan thru 1936 - France and Italy refused to sign). Paragraph 1 of Article 16 of the Treaty splits the definition of "cruisers" into those with guns larger and smaller than 6.1", and assigns tonnage limits to US, UK and Japan. Paragraph 3 of Article 16 specifically authorized numbers of 8" gun cruisers...18 for the US, 15 for the UK, 12 for Japan (allowing completion of the 4 Takao Class).
 
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pikeshot1600

Ad Honoris
Jul 2009
10,084
Totally. One objective of the London Naval Limitations Treaty of 1930 was to get the "Treaty Cruiser" race under control (at least for the US, UK and Japan thru 1936 - France and Italy refused to sign). Paragraph 1 of Article 16 of the Treaty splits the definition of "cruisers" into those with guns larger and smaller than 6.1", and assigns tonnage limits to US, UK and Japan. Paragraph 3 of Article 16 specifically authorized numbers of 8" gun cruisers...18 for the US, 15 for the UK, 12 for Japan (allowing completion of the 4 Takao Class).
The USN had to play catch up with Japan as the first two Treaty cruisers were laid down only in 1926 and 1927. Pensacola and Salt lake City were not particularly successful ships as they were top heavy and poor sea boats. However, the following Northampton and New Orleans classes were work horses in the early campaigns of WW II. Three Northamptons were commissioned in 1930 and three in 1931.

The Cruiser Act of 1929 provided for nineteen cruisers for the navy but only nine were commissioned under these provisions. The London Treaty of 1930 and the economic condition of the early 1930s were the principle reasons for that. By the expiration of the London treaty provisions at year end, 1936, the USN had 16 8" gun cruisers in commission with USS Vincennes (winter, 1937) and USS Wichita (designed under the treaty provisions, and commissioned in 1939) not yet in service. That was the USN total of 18 CAs.

All these CAs were just under 10,000 tons displacement. All had speed of 32-33 kts, and all were armed with 8" guns. The two Pensacola class had ten 8" (2 x 3; 2 x 2); all others had triple turrets (3 x 3). The Northampton class were AFAIK the last class of cruisers to be fitted with torpedo tubes, destroyers being seen as more effective delivery systems for torpedoes.

The ships were:

1) Pensacola class:

USS Pensacola
USS Salt Lake City

2) Northampton class:

USS Northampton *
USS Chester
USS Louisville
USS Chicago *
USS Houston *
USS Augusta

3) Portland class:

USS Portland
USS Indianapolis *

4) New Orleans class:

USS New Orleans
USS Astoria *
USS Minneapolis
USS Tuscaloosa
USS San Francisco
USS Quincy *
USS Vincennes *

5) Wichita class - one ship, USS Wichita designed within the limits of the naval treaties, but commissioned in 1939. This ship was in many ways the first of the USS Baltimore class type CAs built for the conditions of WW II.

The losses in these classes are indicated by *
 
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pikeshot1600

Ad Honoris
Jul 2009
10,084
Japanese experimental cruiser Yubari:

This ship was conceived in the years before the 1922 Washington treaty and was a "test bed" for the Imperial Japanese navy:

Japanese cruiser Yūbari - Wikipedia

A large number of light cruisers had been built or ordered for the IJN after the First World War. These were ships of from 5,100 to 5,800 tons displacement and armed with seven 5.5" guns, and from four to eight 24" torpedo tubes. The arrangement of the seven gun positions resulted in a broadside of six of the seven guns. Here is a Wikipedia article on the Sendai class:

Sendai-class cruiser - Wikipedia

The IJN was very concerned to maximize armament on future ship types, and the naval research laboratory was ordered to produce a design to test some of the ideas for accomplishing that. This was seen as increasingly important due to the terms and requirements of the 1922 treaty. The result, as described in the Wiki above, was Yubari, commissioned in July, 1923.

The design provided the same broadside of 5.5" guns as on the 5,000 T cruisers with a ship of roughly half the displacement (2890 T) and with no loss of speed. The Yubari's power plant was very similar to a contemporary destroyer. This experimental ship was not repeated, but it was used as a basis for the 8" gun cruisers of the later 1920s, and also for the large, fast destroyers for which the IJN became noted.
 
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pikeshot1600

Ad Honoris
Jul 2009
10,084
^^ Time for editing has expired, so just to mention that the earliest of the "5,000" cruisers were not equipped with the 24" Type 93 "long lance" torpedo, but with 21." From what I can see, Yubari was armed with the new 24" torpedo when commissioned in 1923.
 

pikeshot1600

Ad Honoris
Jul 2009
10,084
French and Italian 8" gun Treaty Cruisers, 1924 to 1934.

Under the terms of the 1922 Washington Treaty, France laid down two 10,000 ton cruisers with eight (4 x 2) 8" guns in Oct., 1924 and Apr., 1925. Both were commissioned in 1928. Italy responded by doing the same in Feb. and June, 1925, those ships commissioned in 1928 and 1929. The five signatories to the Treaty agreed not to build capital ships, but a "cruiser arms race" began in the Mediterranean Sea.

The French navy, concerned to have enough large cruisers to protect her colonies, laid down four more 10,000 T, 8" gun cruisers, one in each year from 1926 to 1929. These were all in commission by 1932.

The Regia Marina countered with four cruisers, all in commission by 1932. Italy ordered one additional cruiser in 1930; commissioned 1933, and the French also built one additional, laid down 1931; commissioned in 1934.

Ships in classes were:

1) France:

Duquesne (1928)
Tourville (1928)

Suffren (1930)
Colbert (1931)
Foch (1931)
Dupleix (1932)

Algerie (1934)


2) Italy:

Trento (1929)
Trieste (1928)

Zara (1931)
Fiume (1931)
Gorizia (1931)
Pola (1932)

Bolzano (1933)


The Italian ships were all in excess of 10,000 tons standard displacement while the French ships conformed to the Washington limitations.

By the 1930s, and with new provisions of the 1930 London Naval Treaty, the two Mediterranean naval powers began to direct their naval budgets elsewhere, France building two fast battleships, and Italy beginning the reconstruction of four older ones. Both navies built large numbers of destroyers and submarines, in addition to 6" gun cruisers, through the 1930s. Italy built twelve light cruisers in the 1930s and France built seven in addition to their four older ships.

In general, although these ships were modern designs, the Italian ships were built for speed while the French cruisers were more noted for endurance.
 
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