Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of the Amarna Period

Mar 2019
405
Ogden, Utah
The text of the El Arish Shrine is part of an old paper by Griffith, which I put on my page. One of the pages is upside down, but that's the way I found it. Whoever downloads it can always print it out and turn it around. I will look through it and take a snip of the relevant passage. You will see it's just as I said in my paper and not very much like the translation of Goyon.

Hieroglyphic Text of El Arish Shrine

Okay, found it. I underlined the passage. After the blank space on that line it says Geb found Tefnut in a place whose name was Pi-Kharaty and then "aHa.n iT.n=f sy m awAyt" or "he seized her for a robber". It's the feminine for "robber" so it's Tefnut and not Geb who that refers to. I don't think Goyon understood the meaning of that word and so concluded there was some violent act there. But that's as violent as it gets there. It's not "qu'il l'enleva de vive force" exactly. Geb did grab her but on account of a political struggle between them.

Elarishviolence.JPG
 
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Mar 2019
405
Ogden, Utah
My phone isn't much good for taking photos of pages but here is the word "awAyt" in Hannig's Egyptian dictionary. Evidently another attestation of it had been found. I don't know why this is on its side here. It's right-side-up in my picture viewer.

20190928_093615.jpg
 

AlpinLuke

Forum Staff
Oct 2011
27,036
Italy, Lago Maggiore
Don't worry about pictures, it's ok.

That's absolutely a female form. No doubt. Probably there is a nuance which has been misunderstood here. No, it's not "qu'il l'enleva de vive force" it's something shared.
 
Mar 2019
405
Ogden, Utah
Don't worry about pictures, it's ok.

That's absolutely a female form. No doubt. Probably there is a nuance which has been misunderstood here. No, it's not "qu'il l'enleva de vive force" it's something shared.
Now you can see why Goedicke suspected that, while this tale is narrated using the names of the deities connected to Ra, certain elements make it seem like the story, itself, is derived from some sort of folk memory of a drama that involved actual royals. The nine days are important because they surely indicate that very strange weather phenomenon that was hard to forget. If people around Memphis could not see anything for nine days that was pretty unusual. Meanwhile, on the 10th day of the same month notorious for dust storms in Lower Egypt, Thutmose III achieved his independence according to his Armant Stela. And 75 days later he and his army were at Djaru in his Year 22. Just as Geb went north after 75 days on the El Arish Shrine. I know this has nothing to do with Nefertiti but the Tefnut in this other story is portrayed as a powerful person, too. She was on her throne at Memphis. What does it mean? Were Shu and Tefnut reigning together as the equals they were supposed to be--or did Tefnut take the royal seat upon the demise of Shu, cutting Geb out of the picture so that he was compelled to "seize her for a robber"?

The only place Hans Goedicke mentions his idea [to my knowledge and, believe me, I checked] is in his self-published book "The Speos Artemidos Inscription of Hatshepsut and Related Discussions". It is on page 110 where he wrote "A heretofore side-stepped secondary source in the historical discussion, the inscription on the el-Arish naos brings some light". To that he put a footnote, which fails to shed much light. I decided to investigate. Goedicke was an Egyptologist who was not afraid to think outside the box. Actually, I am more conservative than he was. In the footnote he claimed "A study of the text and its historical reflections is forthcoming". But I could not find that.
 
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AlpinLuke

Forum Staff
Oct 2011
27,036
Italy, Lago Maggiore
Do you mean Geb and Tefnut? ... the apotheosis of Oedipus complex. Traditionally Geb reserved his attentions for Nut, the sky Goddess [who was his sister, btw].

I have to elaborate your suggestion. It makes sense.
 
Mar 2019
405
Ogden, Utah
Do you mean Geb and Tefnut? ... the apotheosis of Oedipus complex. Traditionally Geb reserved his attentions for Nut, the sky Goddess [who was his sister, btw].

I have to elaborate your suggestion. It makes sense.
Well, there was always Neferura! She was his sister. They were married, though--but when? BTW, the book I mentioned by Goedicke was published in 2004--so he promised something after that. Maybe he changed his mind.
 
Nov 2016
1,021
Germany
Do you mean Geb and Tefnut? ... the apotheosis of Oedipus complex
In the case of daughter and father one sometimes speaks of an Electra complex, the female counterpart of the male Oedipus complex. Basically, these complex theories say that the opposite sex parent is desired and the same sex parent is hated, because this parent stands in the way of desire. It was Freud's follower and later opponent, C.G. Jung, who had the idea of a female Oedipus complex (called Electra complex). Freud disagreed. According to him, daughters have the following possibilities to develop their sexuality: 1) they love the father and identify with the mother, 2) they despise the sexual, 3) they identify with masculinity, i.e. they assume a male role.

The so-called castration complex has, according to orthodox psychoanalysis, different functions in the sexes: in the boys it generates fear and submission to the authority of the father (whereby the Oedipus complex is overcome), in the girls it triggers the attachment to the father because he has that (the penis) which the girl lacks (the notorious penis envy of Freudian psychoanalysis).
 
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Mar 2019
405
Ogden, Utah
I have been revisiting the Valley of the Kings recently in order to write a paper about the mummy "Unknown Man C". This led me to some thoughts about the burials of queens. Prior to the Valley of the Queens, which does not appear to predate Dynasty 19, where were the royal consorts supposed to go? I think there was some sort of plan made for them, of course, and here are some thoughts that I throw in here. A pharaoh was prepared to share his tomb with such wives and children as predeceased him--but his tomb was not meant to be re-opened once he was dead except for him. Although the known wives and children of certain kings were not found in their burial places in modern times--that does not mean they had never been there. Many mummies are not accounted for, even those of some of the pharaohs, themselves. Perhaps there is an undiscovered royal cache somewhere still. As far as what happened at Amarna is concerned, we know that Princess Meketaten, at least, was placed in the Royal Tomb. Probably Queen Tiye, as well. Eventually Akhenaten, himself, reached that place--but that was the end of the interments, although we may suppose everything was done differently at Amarna and the Royal Tomb could be opened for the wives of Akhenaten at any time. Everything points to Nefertiti not only having outlived her husband but also moving away from Akhetaten. And yet she must have been buried somewhere. It is my belief all eventually were taken to KV55 when Akhetaten was abandoned but where is Meketaten?
In fact, KV55 may have been a tomb that Nefertiti, as regent and king's mother, had intended for her own burial. An undecorated tomb during the time of Dynasty 18 usually means "meant for a queen".

We have, as examples, KV42, whose foundation deposit indicates it was intended for Merytre-Hatshepsut, the last queen of Thutmose III and mother of his successor, Amenhotep II. However, the lady was evidently not placed there--but things belonging to the family of Sennefer, Mayor of Thebes, were found there. Some other items belonging to them were also discovered in KV32, a tomb intended for Tiaa, a wife of Amenhotep II and mother of Thutmose IV. In fact, such tombs may have been ordered by the husbands, especially if their wives were much younger and expected to outlive them. While life is uncertain and anything could occur, no king of Egypt, whatever his own age, would have taken up with anybody older than in her teens and nobody thought it improper. In fact, the impropriety of marrying young girls is something that was only conceived in the latter part of the 19th Century of our modern era and no earlier. KV14 may have even been begun for Queen Tawosret in Year II of Seti II--but it was not decorated until the time of King Siptah. But, after that, the Valley of the Queens was the place for them and the royal sons, too. The wife of Ramesses II, Nefertari, had her own beautifully decorated tomb--but her's was probably the first to receive this lavish attention. It was not usual in the time of Dynasty 18, as we have seen. Although Nefertiti was probably a regent as Neferneferuaten, she may have expected to die in that state as her canopic coffinettes do look kingly--unless they were very much modified for Tutankhamen. I find them rather mysterious. But they are much easier to make than a decorated, kingly tomb, and perhaps Nefertiti never had such grandiose plans for her burial. If she did, then her tomb has been lost. I think if it was behind some wall in KV62, it would have been detected by now.
 

AlpinLuke

Forum Staff
Oct 2011
27,036
Italy, Lago Maggiore
Nefertiti's tomb has become a kind of Grail after Reeves submitted his educated theory to the academic community. Before of his suggestion, substantially the community of the Egyptologists imagined that Nefertiti got buried in one of the Royal tombs at Akhetaten [probably in the one where they found Akhenaten's sarcophagus] and that her coffin [and her body] had moved later because of any reason.

Then Reeves came out of the blue with his curious hypothesis.

Being Italian and living near Turin I've read on local newspapers about the Italian scientists running the last analysis of Tut's tomb to find chambers beyond its walls. On a side it has been a bit disappointing to read that the Italian team excluded the existence of those chambers, but on the other side it has been a positive contribution to the construction of the factual historical context of the events.

Let's restart from the beginning ...

* Who was Nefertiti Neferneferuaten? She was Akhenaten's wife.
* Did Akhenaten state where she was going to be buried? Yes he did: in his own Royal tomb, according to the boundary stelae[The rock tombs of El Amarna : Davies, Norman de Garis, 1865-1941 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive].

So ... why to look for her tomb in the Valley of the Kings?

On the other hand we could wonder [and I have wondered] why there are no clear traces of an other sarcophagus in Akhenaten's tomb ... where are the fragments of Nefertiti's sarcophagus? Who [and why] removed her sarcophagus from that tomb?

The obvious answer is that Nefertiti never had a sarcophagus there. Period. If she survived to the husband becoming a Monarch within the tradition of KmT it was quite natural to think to a separate tomb. But ... did they have enough time to excavate it?

This is actually the pivotal question. If we accept that Nefertiti survived to her husband why should we think she died after some years? Nothing impedes to think she got old ... after leaving the crown to Tutankhaten / Tutankhamen. But this is a totally different matter.

The main question is where did she think to have a tomb [if Monarch she decided ...]. And it's not easy to answer to this question, overall keeping in mind that she [as Sa Ra Neferneferuaten, or Sat Ra ...] was going back to the traditional cults. So the Valley of the Kings wouldn't be so odd ... but it doesn't seem this is the right path. Today Egyptian Egyptologists are looking for Ankhesenamun in the Valley of the Queens, but not for Nefertiti in the Valley of the Kings.


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About this, before of indulging in empty enthusiasm, we should note that Egypt is spending a mountain of money to build the new capital with a gigantic new Egyptian Museum and expectations for an extraordinary discovery could simply be part of a communication strategy to attract tourists ...
 
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