Out of Africa Hypothesis

Jun 2012
15
Greece
#1
The 'Out-of-Africa' theory proposes that 1.4 million years ago Homo erectus left Africa and spread throughout Europe and Asia. In Europe, Homo erectus evolved into the Neanderthals. In Asia, most Homo erectus stopped evolving - with the exception of a small group in the Indonesian archipelago that branched off to become Homo floresiensis (aka the Hobbit). Unlike most of the Homo erectus in Asia, which stagnated, the Homo erectus that stayed in Africa continued to evolve and eventually became Homo sapiens.

About 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens left Africa. They spread throughout the globe and conquered or out-competed Neanderthals and Homo erectus. The last Neanderthal died out around 30,000 years ago. The last Homo erectus died out somewhere between 200,000 and 30,000 years ago. The last Hobbit is believed to have died out in a volcanic eruption around 10,000 years ago. After conquering Homo erectus in Indonesia, Homo sapiens moved to Australia. If Homo erectus had made it to Australia first, then they too would have been conquered.

In a nutshell, 200,000 years ago an African tribe, either through superior food gathering ability or open war, started the extinction of all hominin species living throughout Eurasia.

Supporting the Out-of-Africa theory is work by Allan Wilson who provided evidence in 1987 that all modern humans share a single female ancestor who lived in Africa approximately 200,000 years ago.

African Origins
Over 160,000 years ago modern humans-Home Sapiens-lived in Africa. The earliest known archaeological evidence of our mtDNA and Ychromosome ancestors is found in East Africa.

160,000~135,000
Four groups travelled as hunter-gatherers south to the Cape of Good Hope, south-west to the Congo Basin and west to the Ivory Coast, carrying the first generation of mtDNA genes types 'L1'

135,000~115,000
A group travelled across a green Sahara 125,000 years ago, through the open northern gate, up the Nile to the Levant.

115,000~90,000
The branch that reached the Lavant died out by 90,000 years ago. A global freeze-up turned this area and north Africa into extreme desert. This region was later reoccupied by Neanderthal Man.

90,000~85,000
85,000 years ago a group crossed the mouth of the Red Sea-The Gates of Grief-prior to travelling as beach-combers along the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula toward India. All non-African people are are descended from this group.

85,000~75,000
From Sri Lanka they continued along the Indian Ocean coast to western Indonesia, then a landmass attached to Asia. Still following the coast they moved aroung Borneo to south China.

74,000 Mt Toba
Super-eruption of Mt Toba, Sumatra, causing a 6 year nuclear winter and instant 1000 year ice-age with a dramatic population crash, to less than 10,000 adults. Volcanic ash from the eruption up to 5m deep covered India and Pakistan.

74,000~65,000
Following the devastation of the Indian sub-continent, repopulation took place. Groups crossed by boat from Timor into Austalia and also from Borneo into New Guinea. There was intense cold in the Lower Pleniglacial in the north.

65,000~52,000
Dramatic warming of the climate 52,000 years ago meant groups were finally able to move north up the Fertile Crescent returning to the Levant. From there they moved into Europe via the Bosporus from 50,000 years ago.

52,000~45,000
Mini Ice Age. Aurignacian Upper Paleolithic culture moved from Turkey into Bulgaria, Europe. The new style of stone tools moved up the Danube into Hungary then Austria.

45,000~40,000
Groups from the east Asian coast moved west through the central Asia steppes towards northeast Asia. From Pakistan they moved into Central Asia, and from Indo-China through Tibet into the Qing-hai Plateau.

40,000~25,000
Central Asians moved west towards eastern Europe, north into the arctic Circle and joined East Asians to start the spread into north-east Eurasia. This period saw the birth of spectacular works of art, as in the Chauvet cave in France.

25,000~22,000
Ancestors of the Native Americans who crossed the Bering land bridge connecting Siberia to Alaska, either passed through the ice corridor reaching Meadowcroft before the LGM, or took the coastal route.

22,000~19,000
During the last Ice Age, Northern Europe, Asia and North America were de-populated, with isolated surviving groups locked in refuges. In North America the ice corridor closed and the coastal route froze.

19,000~15,000
The Last Glacial Maximum [LGM] 18,000 years ago. In North America, south of the ice, groups continued to develop diversity in language, culture, and genes as they crossed into South America. Australian rock art-Bradshaw Paintings.

15,000~12,500
Continued amelioration of the global climate. Coastal route recommenced. Monte Verde, Chile - human habitation; radio-carbon dating from 11,790 to 13,565 years ago. Simple stone tools such as flakes and cobbles were excavated.

12,000~10,000
Reoccupation Of North America 12,500 years ago from south of the ice going north. In the sub-Arctic 11,500 years ago people moved out from the Beringean refuge to become the Eskimo, Aleuts and Na-Dene speakers.

10,000~8,000
The final collapse of the Ice Age heralded the dawn of agriculture. The Sahara was grassland, as implied by the life-size giraffe petroglyphs in Niger. Recolonisation of Britain and Scandinavia.

Bradshaw Foundation
 
Mar 2012
1,579
Following the breeze
#2
The 'Out-of-Africa' theory proposes that 1.4 million years ago Homo erectus left Africa and spread throughout Europe and Asia. In Europe, Homo erectus evolved into the Neanderthals. In Asia, most Homo erectus stopped evolving - with the exception of a small group in the Indonesian archipelago that branched off to become Homo floresiensis (aka the Hobbit). Unlike most of the Homo erectus in Asia, which stagnated, the Homo erectus that stayed in Africa continued to evolve and eventually became Homo sapiens.

About 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens left Africa. They spread throughout the globe and conquered or out-competed Neanderthals and Homo erectus. The last Neanderthal died out around 30,000 years ago. The last Homo erectus died out somewhere between 200,000 and 30,000 years ago. The last Hobbit is believed to have died out in a volcanic eruption around 10,000 years ago. After conquering Homo erectus in Indonesia, Homo sapiens moved to Australia. If Homo erectus had made it to Australia first, then they too would have been conquered.

In a nutshell, 200,000 years ago an African tribe, either through superior food gathering ability or open war, started the extinction of all hominin species living throughout Eurasia.

Supporting the Out-of-Africa theory is work by Allan Wilson who provided evidence in 1987 that all modern humans share a single female ancestor who lived in Africa approximately 200,000 years ago.

African Origins
Over 160,000 years ago modern humans-Home Sapiens-lived in Africa. The earliest known archaeological evidence of our mtDNA and Ychromosome ancestors is found in East Africa.

160,000~135,000
Four groups travelled as hunter-gatherers south to the Cape of Good Hope, south-west to the Congo Basin and west to the Ivory Coast, carrying the first generation of mtDNA genes types 'L1'

135,000~115,000
A group travelled across a green Sahara 125,000 years ago, through the open northern gate, up the Nile to the Levant.

115,000~90,000
The branch that reached the Lavant died out by 90,000 years ago. A global freeze-up turned this area and north Africa into extreme desert. This region was later reoccupied by Neanderthal Man.

90,000~85,000
85,000 years ago a group crossed the mouth of the Red Sea-The Gates of Grief-prior to travelling as beach-combers along the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula toward India. All non-African people are are descended from this group.

85,000~75,000
From Sri Lanka they continued along the Indian Ocean coast to western Indonesia, then a landmass attached to Asia. Still following the coast they moved aroung Borneo to south China.

74,000 Mt Toba
Super-eruption of Mt Toba, Sumatra, causing a 6 year nuclear winter and instant 1000 year ice-age with a dramatic population crash, to less than 10,000 adults. Volcanic ash from the eruption up to 5m deep covered India and Pakistan.

74,000~65,000
Following the devastation of the Indian sub-continent, repopulation took place. Groups crossed by boat from Timor into Austalia and also from Borneo into New Guinea. There was intense cold in the Lower Pleniglacial in the north.

65,000~52,000
Dramatic warming of the climate 52,000 years ago meant groups were finally able to move north up the Fertile Crescent returning to the Levant. From there they moved into Europe via the Bosporus from 50,000 years ago.

52,000~45,000
Mini Ice Age. Aurignacian Upper Paleolithic culture moved from Turkey into Bulgaria, Europe. The new style of stone tools moved up the Danube into Hungary then Austria.

45,000~40,000
Groups from the east Asian coast moved west through the central Asia steppes towards northeast Asia. From Pakistan they moved into Central Asia, and from Indo-China through Tibet into the Qing-hai Plateau.

40,000~25,000
Central Asians moved west towards eastern Europe, north into the arctic Circle and joined East Asians to start the spread into north-east Eurasia. This period saw the birth of spectacular works of art, as in the Chauvet cave in France.

25,000~22,000
Ancestors of the Native Americans who crossed the Bering land bridge connecting Siberia to Alaska, either passed through the ice corridor reaching Meadowcroft before the LGM, or took the coastal route.

22,000~19,000
During the last Ice Age, Northern Europe, Asia and North America were de-populated, with isolated surviving groups locked in refuges. In North America the ice corridor closed and the coastal route froze.

19,000~15,000
The Last Glacial Maximum [LGM] 18,000 years ago. In North America, south of the ice, groups continued to develop diversity in language, culture, and genes as they crossed into South America. Australian rock art-Bradshaw Paintings.

15,000~12,500
Continued amelioration of the global climate. Coastal route recommenced. Monte Verde, Chile - human habitation; radio-carbon dating from 11,790 to 13,565 years ago. Simple stone tools such as flakes and cobbles were excavated.

12,000~10,000
Reoccupation Of North America 12,500 years ago from south of the ice going north. In the sub-Arctic 11,500 years ago people moved out from the Beringean refuge to become the Eskimo, Aleuts and Na-Dene speakers.

10,000~8,000
The final collapse of the Ice Age heralded the dawn of agriculture. The Sahara was grassland, as implied by the life-size giraffe petroglyphs in Niger. Recolonisation of Britain and Scandinavia.

Bradshaw Foundation
Wow:sad:!!! I am actually supposed to know this, But then again I only ever take the assertive action of opening my textbooks closer to exam period, simply because I have to:think::lol:! Not to mention that I kind of read only the important points and skip the rest...

My point being, I WISH I HAD YOUR BRIAN!!! This is really interesting info:)
 
Dec 2011
259
Romania
#3
Thanks a lot Eleni for this! It sounds very plausible and the main argument in favour of a common origins (Africa in this case) is the fact that human with different characteristics ("races" even though the word has a lot of ugly meanings due to history) can breed viable and fertile offspring.

I am not an expert in this but by hazard I read today about an alternative theory that proposes a different model

[ame="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiregional_origin_of_modern_humans"]Multiregional origin of modern humans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

My opinion is that at this stage of knowledge they have to be acknowledged as workinh hypotesis or models. As I said for me the most convincing argument in favour of a single group that is the ancestor of the all humankind is the fact that there are no obstacles to the reproduction between human "breeds" or "races".
 
Jun 2012
15
Greece
#4
Thank you for your replay!

I'm so glad because I helped you. This article has educational character and yes, this topic it's so interesting :) Everyone should know some basic information about how the early people migrate out of Africa and spread all over the world! I wish you good luck to your exams!

This replay refers to ''The Cell''
 
Last edited:
Jun 2012
15
Greece
#5
Thank's a lot!

The Out of Africa theory needs a lot of further descussion because it's a big matter. I readed about the alternative theories,which are so many. But every topic has it's own 2 sides :) The only we can say is this'' everything is possible''! New experiments,new points of view and theories come out to the surface day by day,your comment is great,because it helps to criticize mine!

This replay refers to the ''Spatar''
 
Mar 2012
2,351
#6
A coupe of wrinkles in it lately. It has been found that all non-African populations have some neandrathal admixture, and certain populations also have Denisovian blood.

Also, although I can't source it off the top of my head, the Chinese are challenging Out Of Africa.
 
Jun 2012
15
Greece
#8
Thank you for your replay!

This is a great comment! I know about this Chinese challenge to ''out of africa'' theory. The discovery of an early human fossil in southern China may challenge the commonly held idea that modern humans originated out of Africa. Jin Changzhu and colleagues of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology in Beijing, announced to Chinese media last week that they have uncovered a 110,000-year-old putative Homo sapiens jawbone from a cave in southern China's Guangxi province. So as you can see a new topic born ''Out of China Hypothesis''. I'm answering you according to some things I have been reading from the internet :)

But the main theory that Africa has the lead role in this topic still exists.

This replay refers to the ''Cachibatches''
 

Attachments

Last edited:
Jun 2012
15
Greece
#9
Thank you Macro!

You are taking me back to the Charles Darwin theory. There are also a lot of other theories which going against of it,but this is normal. From one way,I believe that his words have a little bit the sense of the truth. :)
 
Mar 2012
2,351
#10
This is a great comment! I know about this Chinese challenge to ''out of africa'' theory. The discovery of an early human fossil in southern China may challenge the commonly held idea that modern humans originated out of Africa. Jin Changzhu and colleagues of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology in Beijing, announced to Chinese media last week that they have uncovered a 110,000-year-old putative Homo sapiens jawbone from a cave in southern China's Guangxi province. So as you can see a new topic born ''Out of China Hypothesis''. I'm answering you according to some things I have been reading from the internet :)

But the main theory that Africa has the lead role in this topic still exists.

This replay refers to the ''Cachibatches''
I am really excited about some of this, especially finding out that I am part Neanderthal!