Out of the countries that were monarchies in 1914, which ones had the strongest republican movements?

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
22,295
SoCal
Wasn't the 1905 "revolution" triggered by Nicholas dismissing the Duma? That seems to imply that the root cause of the revolution was Nicholas's absolutism rather than the monarchy in general.
AFAIK, there was no Duma in Russia before 1906.