Political Opposition to Hitler

Chlodio

Forum Staff
Aug 2016
4,471
Dispargum
Is there any way to quantify any German opposition or resistance to Hitler, especially after the war began. I know about Valkyrie, the July 20, 1944, assassination attempt. But even there, is there any way to measure how much support the coup would have had if it had succeeded? I know there were no elections, probably no opinion polls taken, few, if any, critical newspaper editorials, no street demonstrations against Hitler. Is there any way at all of measuring popular sentiment toward the Nazi regime? How about stock market indexes? Did the market go up and down with the successes and failures of the Hitler government?
 
Mar 2019
1,811
Kansas
Is there any way to quantify any German opposition or resistance to Hitler, especially after the war began. I know about Valkyrie, the July 20, 1944, assassination attempt. But even there, is there any way to measure how much support the coup would have had if it had succeeded? I know there were no elections, probably no opinion polls taken, few, if any, critical newspaper editorials, no street demonstrations against Hitler. Is there any way at all of measuring popular sentiment toward the Nazi regime? How about stock market indexes? Did the market go up and down with the successes and failures of the Hitler government?

https://www.investmentoffice.com/show_image.php?file_id=1058
 
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Code Blue

Ad Honorem
Feb 2015
4,276
Caribbean
Is there any way to quantify any German opposition or resistance to Hitler, especially after the war began.
In theory, several, in reality, not so much.

The book, The Time of Jacob's Trouble 1938 has quotes from individuals regarding the start of Jewish crackdowns [paraphrasing] - This is not my country. I have never been so ashamed. Etc. It has accounts of people walking holding their heads down because they couldn't bear to look.

The reality is, as long as the dictator holds the Praetorian, he can rule easily, in my estimate, with 1/3 popular support, probably less. Wasn't it more like two dozen assassination attempts and didn't Hitler kill about 80 of his own generals? That's quantification, but it doesn't say much.
 
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Sep 2019
185
Slovenia
For example this guy tried to kill Hitler in November 1939. Georg Elser was a marxist but not a member of communist party. Stalin collaborated with Hitler at that time.

Georg Elser - Wikipedia

And she was a member of anti-nazi resistance group formed by students called white rose. They tried to inspire demonstrations of German people and cause the fall of Nazi regime. Killed in 1943.

Sophie Scholl - Wikipedia

The plot against Hitler from July 1944 was mentioned. Yet this group of army officers and civilians was active before. Here are their attemps to get rid of Hitler before July 1944:

In late 1942, von Tresckow and Olbricht formulated a plan to assassinate Hitler and stage a coup. On 13 March 1943, returning from his easternmost headquarters FHQ Wehrwolf near Vinnitsa to Wolfsschanze in East Prussia, Hitler was scheduled to make a stop-over at the headquarters of Army Group Centre at Smolensk. For such an occasion, von Tresckow had prepared three options:[105]

  1. Major Georg von Boeselager, in command of a cavalry honor guard, could intercept Hitler in a forest and overwhelm the SS bodyguard and the Führer in a fair fight; this course was rejected because of the prospect of a large number of German soldiers fighting each other, and a possible failure regarding the unexpected strength of the escort.
  2. A joint assassination could be carried out during dinner; this idea was abandoned as supporting officers abhorred the idea of shooting the unarmed tyrant.
  3. A bomb could be smuggled on Hitler's plane.
Von Tresckow asked Lieutenant Colonel Heinz Brandt, on Hitler's staff and usually on the same plane that carried Hitler, to take a parcel with him, supposedly the prize of a bet won by Tresckow's friend General Stieff. It concealed a bomb, disguised in a box for two bottles of Cointreau. Von Tresckow's aide, Lieutenant Fabian von Schlabrendorff, set the fuse and handed over the parcel to Brandt who boarded the same plane as Hitler.[106]

Hitler's Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor was expected to explode about 30 minutes later near Minsk, close enough to the front to be attributed to Soviet fighters. Olbricht was to use the resulting crisis to mobilise his Reserve Army network to seize power in Berlin, Vienna, Munich and in the German Wehrkreis centres. It was an ambitious but credible plan, and might have worked if Hitler had indeed been killed, although persuading Army units to fight and overcome what could certainly have been fierce resistance from the SS could have been a major obstacle.

However, as with Elser's bomb in 1939 and all other attempts, luck favoured Hitler again, which was attributed to "Vorsehung" (providence). The British-made chemical pencil detonator on the bomb had been tested many times and was considered reliable. It went off, but the bomb did not. The percussion cap apparently became too cold as the parcel was carried in the unheated cargo hold.

Displaying great sangfroid, Schlabrendorff took the next plane to retrieve the package from Colonel Brandt before the content was discovered. The blocks of plastic explosives were later used by Gersdorff and Stauffenberg.

A second attempt was made a few days later on 21 March 1943, when Hitler visited an exhibition of captured Soviet weaponry in Berlin's Zeughaus. One of Tresckow's friends, Colonel Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff, was scheduled to explain some exhibits, and volunteered to carry out a suicide bombing using the same bomb that had failed to go off on the plane, concealed on his person. However, the only new chemical fuse he could obtain was a ten-minute one. Hitler again left prematurely after hurrying through the exhibition much quicker than the scheduled 30 minutes. Gersdorff had to dash to a bathroom to defuse the bomb to save his life, and more importantly, prevent any suspicion.[107] This second failure temporarily demoralised the plotters at Army Group Centre. Gersdorff reported about the attempt after the war; the footage is often seen on German TV documentaries ("Die Nacht des Widerstands" etc.), including a photo showing Gersdorff and Hitler.

Axel von dem Bussche, member of the elite Infantry Regiment 9, volunteered to kill Hitler with hand grenades in November 1943 during a presentation of new winter uniforms, but the train containing them was destroyed by Allied bombs in Berlin, and the event had to be postponed. A second presentation scheduled for December at the Wolfsschanze was canceled on short notice as Hitler decided to travel to Berchtesgaden.

In January 1944, Bussche volunteered for another assassination attempt, but then he lost a leg in Russia. On February 11, another young officer, Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist tried to assassinate Hitler in the same way von dem Bussche had planned. However Hitler again canceled the event which would have allowed Kleist to approach him.

On 11 March 1944, Eberhard von Breitenbuch volunteered for an assassination attempt at the Berghof using a 7.65 mm Browning pistol concealed in his trouser pocket. He was not able to carry out the plan because guards would not allow him into the conference room with the Führer.

The next occasion was a weapons exhibition on July 7 at Schloss Klessheim near Salzburg, but Helmuth Stieff did not trigger the bomb.



German resistance to Nazism - Wikipedia
 
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aggienation

Ad Honorem
Jul 2016
9,745
USA
I can imagine the true socialists and Marxists/communists of Germany were never happy, so if you want a number, go look up the last few elections held in Germany, which is a decent indicator of how many individuals voted for ideologies conflicting with National Socialism.

But overall, AFAIK, the assassination attempt was viewed with disdain by much of the public and especially the military, officer corps included. While things weren't going well, with the invasion of Normandy and the disaster of Bagration, to many it still stunk of being a cheap shot done solely because things weren't going great, that was disloyal and contradictory to German traditions of loyalty and honor.

As far as what ifs go, had Valkyrie worked to kill Hitler they'd still have failed to get any of the other top Nazi leaders. The Erstheer would have tried to plant the story that the SS, Himmler, and the rest had been the ones who actually assassinated Hitler, due to an internal power struggle, and would then have turned the Replacement Army against the Nazis in a Germany wide series of mass arrests and battles. So civil war.

And the Nazi party and SS especially had control of the occupied territories. Them, the SS units in those places, plus the Waffen SS units serving with the Heer, would never have gone along with the provisional govt led by the 20 July conspirators.
 
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Sep 2019
55
Turkey
german people 're really loyal . and they couldn't take versailles treaty anymore . they believed hitler can to take their reputations back . most of 'em dead for this .
 

Code Blue

Ad Honorem
Feb 2015
4,276
Caribbean
german people 're really loyal . and they couldn't take versailles treaty anymore . they believed hitler can to take their reputations back . most of 'em dead for this .
You have to admit there is something humorous about discussing loyalty to Hitler with a guy named Von Manstein.
 
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