Post-Bagan Ava ( Kingdom ) period of Myanmar ( Burma )

Feb 2019
14
UK
It is the era in Burmese history during which no major state controlled the present-day Myanmar territory . There were 4 major realms at that time .
1 . Central Burma which was occupied by Burmese-speaking Pinya , then Ava kingdom . Most of the periods , dukes and princes and regional lords were challenging their overlord ( king at Ava ) and try to assert themselves independent .
2. Ramaññadesa , mon-speaking coastal kingdom in lower Burma .
3. Kingdom of Arakan ( first at Laungkyet then at Mrauk-U ) on western Burma .
4 . Shan Realm , which constitutes dozens of Shan states of big and small .

Literature on this period is not as easily available as those on Bagan or Konbaung period or colonial era .
Following are the few books and resources which the 14-15 th century Burmese history involved .

Glass palace chronicle of Kings of Burma
Myanmar in the Fifteenth Century A tale of two Kingdoms Michael A. Aung-Thwin
Various Tai chronicles ( Hsenwi , Kengtung , Sipsong Pann ( Chiang Hung ) are available in Eng )

Ming Shi lu is also the good resource from Chinese perspective . Many records on the various Yi ( Burma and Tai kingdoms ) can be found there . Introduction | Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu Southeast Asia in Ming Shi Lu is very good online resource .
 

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Feb 2019
14
UK

This is very detailed interactive maps covering Myanmar from Post-Bagan year until the end of Ava kingdom . As it can be seen , many central Burmese polities like Yamelthin , Toungoo , Prome challenged the Ava authority and time to time , were independent polity in its own right . Even some smaller polities like Salin , Pinle , Taungdwin were out of Ava' authority for some time . Rammadesa too have power struggle between 3 of its Mandala , Martaban , Hanthawaddy and Delta ( Myaungmya or Pathein ) . Shan states were more fragmented with each center has its own smaller center of power ( mueangs ).
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
Wow thanks. Burmese history is something I've been interested in for a long time but didn't really know where to start.

Just a minor correction, that video says 297 AD when it should say 1297.
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
Thanks a lot for pointing out . Just put correction in description part .

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Also , I would also like to have access to chinese records ( translated in Eng ) on its tusi system . That would tells a lot about minor kingdoms ( chieftains ) on his frontier .
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
Yeah I don't have Chinese records, but it would help especially with the Shan states which often had relations with China.
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
I've been studying administrative structure in history a lot lately. Pagan and most of the following kingdoms were essentially similar to shogunate Japan or medieval Europe in that the sub-rulers were hereditary lords. The Restored Toungoo were the first to reform the governing hierarchies with appointed governors.
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
Yes it was . Only during the Restored toungoo ( Burmese call it Nyaungyan or second ava era ) period , regional centers were governed by appointed governors . Before it , most of the regional centers were given to distant relatives or princes or closed subordinates . Every time new king ascended the throne , his authority was challenged by his brothers or powerful relatives . Like you said , Ava period is quite similar to Capetian France in a way that many of the regional rulers too were more or less similar status to the king himself in terms of nobility . They were all descended from the royal line and intermarried among themselve and ruled own fiefs as absolute rulers .There was also almost no punishment or strict enforcement of central authority on those nobel lords during Post-Bagan Ava period . In many occasions , princes and lords who revolted were pardoned and switched to another fief . Bayinnaung was the first to enforce central authority and strict military discipline even though he did not yet reformed the governing hierarchies . He was still the high king of kings Cakkavatti in mandala setting . However he executed and punished any lord or commanders or even his closest associate for tiniest battlefield error .
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
Yeah under Nyaungyan at the end of the 1500s and beginning of the 1600s.

So when did firearms enter into Myanmar?
 
Feb 2019
14
UK
In the famous records ( book ) ရာဇာဓိရာဇ္ အေရးေတာ္ပံု ( Struggle of Razadirat ) which emphasized on Ava-Hanthawaddy forty years war , it is written that very closed minister to Razadirat was killed from firearm while its forces attacked Pathein around 1388 ( which was controlled at that time by son of Laukpya , lord of Myaungmya , who ruled the whole delta regions independently since 1365 ). The ones who used firearms were Kala ( burmese word for any arabs , muslims , south indians ) mercenaries on the side of Pathein forces ( Pathein at that time was one of the major trading port ) .

Attached one is the cover of the book o fRazadarit Ayedawbon ( in burmese )
 

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Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,777
United States
Ah okay. So late 1300s or so, around the time most of the world was acquiring them.