second urbanisation seems to now have become nothing but a colonial notion which is earnestly towed by some indian and western historians when defining indian history. For instance i have recently come across evidences which seem to predate the so called second urbanisation
- many archaeological excavations especially from city of kausambi has revealed the date of city going back to the second millennium fortification going back to 1025-955 BC
- Pataliputra may even predate kausambi city based on analysis of one scholar such as Dieter Schlingloff that it used wooden ramparts and fortifications when brick fortifications were already employed by the ancient cities of ganges valley such as kausambi from 1000-800 BC, so pataliputra using wooden fortifications may have even gone beyond well into the second millennium BC
- the northern black polished ware pottery occured in 700 BC and it emerged from the present region of magadha, indicating urbanisation esp in eastern india since NBPW was an important indication of elites in an urbanised society affording such luxury
- the minting of indian coins started a little earlier than 600 BC or in the seventh century, if india was urbanised only in the fifth century this goes in contradiction to earlier occurrence of coins in india, it should be noted that coins in india were not influenced by any other regions, it was an independent innovation which means, indians were probably getting urbanised back then
- many scholars argue that vedas couldn't have been composed without writing them down, given their state of preservation, the recent archaeological evidence of writing of prakrit and tamil in pot sherds from fifth century indicates a wide spread literacy even in 500 BC
- some of the earliest scholars/philosophers are from india, Parshvantha of jainism probably from varanasi and Yajnavalkiya and aruni from patna, bihar from the 9th or 8th century have been declared as historic figures indicates that india was churning out scholars from atleast 900 or 800 BC.
- some scholars also state that the state of preservation of rigveda couldn't have been possible without written system, since the state of vedas is different compared to oral traditions of the greeks or epics of homer for instance where the state was not accurately maintained.
- foundries in the gangetic plain and MP have been found to have started mass producing iron as early as 1400 BC with their base lying as early as 1800 BC, this again goes against the notion that there was no urbanization.
- It is said that cloves and ppper corns were traded with western asia as early as 1400 BC as well, pepper corns are found in the tomb of egyptian phroah in the 1200 BC, this indicates either a vast network of trade from south india or an indian ocean trade going back to the second millennium BC
- not to mention mitanni inscriptions from 1450 BC which clearly indicates indian influence, which must have resulted due to growth of indian urbanisation and trade activities if we discard the myth of aryan migration for an instance.
- Kosambi palace itself is dated from 8th century BC, indicating a much earlier urbanisation compared with 600 BC
- aryan theory, aryans came to india in 1500 BC at the frontier regions, but eastern india already shows urbanisation in the second millennium BC, this debunks aryan theories, more time is needed for urbanisation to take place
- megasthene observation and greek sources, the western scholarship heavily relies on assumptions on indian history based on western sources and making assumptions, despite these greek sources cannot be adequately relied atleast for defining indian histories
- Buddhist sources only emerge in 500 BC, now the new revision back tracks it to 400 BC, backtracking it means influences from western asia and europe can be justified
- linking indian abugeda system with persian abjad and linking brahmi as nothing but derivative of arahmaic script and kharoshti as well, even though there is clear evidence of tamil brahmi as early as 5th century BC through prakritic and tamil inscribed pot sherds which ready indicates brahmi has evolved into sub categories like tamil brahmi etc.