Slavery and demography in the USA - 2

Nov 2019
116
Maykop
GENETIC PARADOX OF LIBERIA AND SIERRA-LEONE
Africans from the intercepted slaveholding courts were unloaded on two land sports - Liberia and Sierra Leone. Britain was engaged in struggle against slave trading from 1788 to 1873 - 85 years.

Mod edit Discussion of genetics is not permitted on Historum.

Such situation calls into question the duration and the degree of involvement into the struggle of Great Britain against slave trading.

THE GENERAL STATISTICS
From 1847 to 1861, 5.79 million emigrants from Europe were exported to the colony. The Afro-Americans of the USA basing at the Liberian population increase rate (not the highest one) would reach the contemporary figure, if for the same period of 1847-1861 they had been imported into the USA in seven times less quantity than Europeans - 800 thousand.

The most important thing here - this proportion one to seven. Emigrants thanks to whom there has developed the current demographic situation in the USA, intensely has been moving into the country since 1820 with great peaks in second half of 19 century. On one hand, it happened because in 1848 there was the Great Social revolution in Europe, and only then millions peasants appeared superfluous in the labour market. On the other hand, only by 1840, steam engines had massively been expanded, and for the first time there appeared a steam power-saw bench, so, cheap shipboard was accessible. Moreover, only since 1825 there appeared a serious interest to agricultural crops of America in Europe.

There simply existed neither technical possibilities, nor motive to import black workers, especially, in million quantity, before that period. I will show development of labour market requirements in the USA in terms of the American agricultural cultures.

TOBACCO
In practice, tobacco (and it was proved to be mostly narcotic plants) were never trusted to slaves, - the American regional specialists clearly write about that fact.

SUGAR CANE
Officially, they managed to adapt sugar cane in Louisiana for the first time only after 1831. Earlier attempts to acclimatize the Egyptian cane appeared to be unsuccessful. Probably, by 1831 they managed to get some hybrid with island forms of cane.

There were no cane plantations in the USA until 1831 - accordingly – there were no labour needs.

COTTON
Suitable for weaving Peruvian long staple cotton was found by Europeans in 1773. It is a fact, and it is based on numerous technical information. Englishmen imported into the USA the technology of cotton processing in 1789, and only then the USA business became interested in cotton. The first cotton in Louisiana was received in 1790 - 90 pounds, that is, 36 kg. Business developed quickly, and in 1810 in Louisiana they grew up already 37 thousand tons. In 1817 the cotton boom began.

That is, up to 1810-1817 the cotton planters had no need in black slaves - owing to absence of plantations.

Let’s summarize: particularly in the USA the need in slaves appeared around 1810 and jerky increased after 1817 and after 1831.

SITUATION IN THE SOUTH AMERICA
The main culture giving profit to Brazil was coffee. The first coffee tree in Brazil was mentioned in 1813, and merchandise volumes of coffee appeared by 1834. That is, slaves at coffee plantations were not required up to 1834.

The centre of rubber production, the city of Iquitos, was founded in Brazil in 1857, and the beginning of rubber fever stated in 1864.

Cigar factories in Southern and Central America began to increase since 1845, that is, until that time there were no any cigar tobacco plantations.

In 1809 Encyclopedia Britanica notices only four points of cocoa delivery: Caracas, Cartagena, Darien and Amazonia. In general cocoa plantations development in Brazil dates from 1820.

Up to 1809-1845 slaves in the South America were not required, - the same situation, as in the North America. The bottom border of labour requirement in the New World is 1809-1810.

THE PERIOD OF THE ACTIVE SLAVE TRADING
In 1818 England came to an agreement with Spain and Portugal, and those abandoned the right to trade slaves. In 1819 England also forced Holland to do it, in 1827 - Sweden, and in 1835 - Denmark and France.

Here we have a block of the connected events.
1809-1810 - labour requirement processed in colonies.
1818-1835 - seven countries abandoned the right to trade slaves under England’s pressure.
1842 - a series of important international agreements concerning abandoning the right to trade slaves took place.
1847 – is the estimated date of transferring of the released slaves in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
1848 - all-European the “Spring of Nations” declared personal liberty of a person.
All epoch of slave trading keeps within the period of 1809-1847 Earlier slaves were not required, and later it was a penal act. Moreover, I will remind, once again, it, in practice, it was not human trade; it was feudal people rights trade.

DYNAMICS OF IMMIGRATION TO THE USA
General dynamics of immigration to the USA is as follows:



The reasons of exponential emigrations from Europe are obvious:
- The land reforms that resulted in throwing out unnecessary peasants to the labour market;
- Increasing popularity of American agricultural crops;
- Development of steamship building, giving technical possibility to carry people in one direction, and coffee, sugar and cotton - in the other direction;

Moreover, it is clear that there are certain problems with statistics: from 1882 to 1887, when peasants in Ireland and Russia (and, according to the dates of end of the 49-year-old redemption, in all Europe) were transferred to the compulsory land redemption, and emigration had to achieve unprecedented progress, Brockhaus and Ephron's encyclopedia has data gaps.




CENSUSES IN THE USA
This data gap calls into question into general figures of censuses in the USA. I will remind here that in 1890 the copyists who got sunk in their own manipulations lost 13 million people. I will show the summary table of the censuses data.



The data relation of 1890 to 1880 is the same, as well as 1880 to 1870 - around 1.28, and it cannot be so, as in 1880 emigration got huge increase, - for example, in 1880-1889 1 445 181 Germans left Germany for the USA, and there were also other countries.

Possibly, therefore the initial censuses data of 1890 are not accessible in full amount. Almost all lists of inhabitants were spoilt at a fire in the cellar of the Commerce Building in Washington in 1921. Approximately 25 % of materials were destroyed, 50 % were damaged by fire, smoke and water where the most part of documents stayed during the whole night because of failure to act of the archive workers.
 
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Nov 2016
1,351
Germany
It is part of scientific decency to name the source of quotations. As far as I see, you didn't do that. You don't even make it clear it's a complete quote. Who is the author? Are you Mr. Stepanenko? The text stems from that source:

 
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Nov 2019
116
Maykop
Andrew Stepanenko (chispa1707) - it is me. scan1707.blogspot.com is my blog. I can give a link to my text, but you have a volume limit. Even 7 thousand characters do not fit.
 
Nov 2019
116
Maykop
Demographic PARADOX OF LIBERIA AND SIERRA-LEONE
Africans from the intercepted slaveholding courts were unloaded on two land sports - Liberia and Sierra Leone. Britain was engaged in struggle against slave trading from 1788 to 1873 - 85 years. Theoretically, demographic strangers at the territory of Sierra Leone and Liberia should be the same amount as the Russians in Siberia - 95 percent. However, proportions are opposite: in Liberia descendants of slaves are 5 %, and in Sierra Leone - 10 %.

Taking into consideration the dynamics of the population growth typical for these two countries, it was enough to unload 2100 people in Liberia in 1847, to achieve the increase up to contemporary figures.

Such situation calls into question the duration and the degree of involvement into the struggle of Great Britain against slave trading.
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
6,178
Portugal
THE PERIOD OF THE ACTIVE SLAVE TRADING

In 1818 England came to an agreement with Spain and Portugal, and those abandoned the right to trade slaves.
In your first post you have some data, and not a single source, as already pointed.

Anyway, I would like to know what is your source for this 1818 agreement between England and Portugal, and to your conclusion that Portugal “abandoned the right to trade slaves”.

I know several agreements and conventions between the two countries and I am unaware of any in that date. Besides, Portugal didn’t end the slave trade in that date. So a source is required.
 
Nov 2019
116
Maykop
In your first post you have some data, and not a single source, as already pointed.

Anyway, I would like to know what is your source for this 1818 agreement between England and Portugal, and to your conclusion that Portugal “abandoned the right to trade slaves”.

I know several agreements and conventions between the two countries and I am unaware of any in that date. Besides, Portugal didn’t end the slave trade in that date. So a source is required.
1818 Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade
United Kingdom
Portugal
 
Nov 2019
116
Maykop
Wikipedia is good for generalities. Don't trust too much on in on specific matters like this one. For this you will need better sources.
Since 2006, I looked at 5583 sources and created a database of 155127 dated historical evidence. The database contains 982 event type indices and 689 event place indices. The database is formed in the Excel program, it’s very convenient to work. Where another person watches events, I watch whole groups of events, and therefore I see processes.
 
Nov 2019
116
Maykop
I posted the database on google drive. Everyone can download the database freely.
MOD EDIT: Download link removed
 
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