Sources for the Tibetan Era of Fragmentation

Jul 2014
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How much control did the Phag-mo Gru-pa, Rin-spungs-pa, and Gtsang-pa have?
PhagMo-drupa was a confederacy. They controlled more or less present Utsang ,Ngari and Chamdo/Yushu areas. Their influence may have extended to Golok Amdos too as many clans trace their lineage to the PhagMo-drupa generals.

Ripung stronghold were western Tibet and central Tibet. They were great patrons of Kagyu sects and had support of Kutse and nomads of Qinghai.

Gtsangpas stronghold were central Tibet and western Tibet. They were the last TIbetan dynasty of Utsang.
 

Haakbus

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Aug 2013
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PhagMo-drupa was a confederacy. They controlled more or less present Utsang ,Ngari and Chamdo/Yushu areas. Their influence may have extended to Golok Amdos too as many clans trace their lineage to the PhagMo-drupa generals.

Ripung stronghold were western Tibet and central Tibet. They were great patrons of Kagyu sects and had support of Kutse and nomads of Qinghai.

Gtsangpas stronghold were central Tibet and western Tibet. They were the last TIbetan dynasty of Utsang.
Yeah they didn't rule over all of Tibet, but how strong was there control over the territories they did?

Didn't the Guge kingdom became a vassal of Rinpung at the end of the 15th century? This of course wouldn't include Ladakh, Baltistan, Zanskar, Spiti, or Nubra
 
Jul 2014
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They were like Shogunates of Japan. When they were strong everybody respected their edicts. When weak vassals rebelled. Phagmogdrus were the vassals of the Mongols/sakyas, Ripungs were the vassals of the Phagmosdrus and Gtsangs were the vassals of the Ripungs. They all rebelled against their overlords and initially succeeded very well.

Many part of the western Tibet were the vassals of central asian turks after decline of the Guge kingdom. Many of these parts had been paying tribute to both Lhasa and Kashgaris. Ripung retook these parts. Guge also a became a vassal and became a pain the ass for the ripungs. Wars against Ladakh and lower Ngaris were fought because of the Guge. These drain in the resources weakened the Rupungs and were ultimately fatal for them.
 
Jul 2019
3
78 East Princess St, Helensburgh, G84 7DE
The Era of Fragmentationis a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th century. During this era, the political centralization of the earlier Tibetan Empire collapsed following a civil war between Yumtän and Ösung. The period was dominated by rebellions against the remnants of imperial Tibet and the rise of regional warlords.

Civil war and the decline of imperial Tibet
The last emperor of the unified Tibetan Empire, Langdarma, was assassinated in 842-846, by either a Buddhist hermit or a monk named Pelgyi Dorje of Lhalung. The assassination left two possible heirs, Yumtan and Osung, to fight for the throne, leading to a civil war. The successors of Osung controlled the region of Ngari, while the successors of Yumtän controlled the Ü region. The son of Ösung was Pälkhortsän, who would sire two sons, Trashi Tsentsän and Thrikhyiding, also called Kyide Nyigön in some sources. Thrikhyiding migrated to the western Tibetan region of upper Ngari and married a woman of high central Tibetan nobility, with whom he founded a local dynasty. This civil war weakened the political authority of the Tibetan m
 

Maki

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Jan 2017
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The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power Among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese During the Early Middle Ages by Christopher I. Beckwith, Tibetan Civilization by R. A. Stein, One Hundred Thousand Moons: An Advanced Political History of Tibet by Tsepon Wangchuk Deden Shakabpa might help you.
 
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Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,778
United States
The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power Among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese During the Early Middle Ages by Christopher I. Beckwith, Tibetan Civilization by R. A. Stein, One Hundred Thousand Moons: An Advanced Political History of Tibet by Tsepon Wangchuk Deden Shakabpa might help you.
I've read the first one. Gonna check into the others.
 
Jul 2014
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Please also check out :

1:[Alex McKay] History of Tibet 1,2,3.

2:[Dhondup K.] The Water Horse and Other Years.( Last years of Gtsang and Hoshot Khanate and early Qing )

3:[John Vincent Bellezza] The Dawn of Tibet. ( one of the most interesting books about xiangxiong and pre Buddhist rulers)
 
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Jan 2018
4
བོད་ཆེན་པོ།
Songtsen-la,

don't forget the sacrifices of the tribesmen in amdo ngawa/sharkhog (where my maternal grandfather was from) who made the qianlong emperor tremble in his throne and exhausted his army which was seasoned from years of warfare against the Dzungar mongols (who ravaged utsang) and in the jungles of Burma. 600,000 qing soldiers humbled by only 30,000 strong-willed Amdowas and gyalrongwas.

Even so, the 14th Dalai Lama did not seem to possess full authority in Tibet as some of the Free Tibet people claims.
What were the political authorities in Tibet from 1911-1952? The Republic of China had nominal control if I read correctly.
Was it true that Ganden Phodrang did not fully control even today's Xizang autonomous region?
The last 150 years of Tibetan history :

The Amdo rebellion of the 1830s lasted for almost 30 years and showed everybody how weak Qing was when the Qing couldn't protect Mongols and Uighurs against Amdo tribes in Gansu and Qinghai.

The Ngyarong Khampa rebellion of mid 1800s lasted for over 10 years and wiped out Qing and Lhasa influence from Kham.

Ngyarong Khampas defeated Qing and local Khampa tribes to form one of the biggest but short living Tibetan state. This stated extended from Ganzi in the east to golok in the north to Chamdo in the west. Almost all of Kham and huge portions of Amdo paid fealty to the Ngyarongwas. This short lived state was destroyed by the Lhasa when it united all the enemies of Ngyarong and defeated them. Afterwards almost all the Buddhist monasteries in Ngyarong and Jialrong were converted into yellow hat sect monasteries.

The Deqin Khampa rebellion of the early 1900s resulted in QIng invasion which led to Qing resurgence in tibet for few years.

The Sichuan and Qinghai wars of Lhasan against the KMT.

The Amdo Golok rebellion of 1910s which lasted for well over 30 years.

The Khampa rebellion of the mid 1930s against the Lhasa.

The khampa/amdo rebellion of 1956 -1976 against PLA.

Not much peace in Kham and Amdo areas but central Tibetans had relatively more peaceful existence.

PS: I have not included many small rebellions because that will take whole pages.