Sources for the Tibetan Era of Fragmentation

Jan 2018
4
བོད་ཆེན་པོ།
If China did not annex Tibet in 1959, I believe a bloody revolt and civil war would have been waged by the commonfolk against the kudraks (aristocracy). And yes, even against Kundun. An Oliver Cromwell-esque figure would definitely have taken power in Tibet at some point between now and 1959 in this scenario (there were already people of this mindset like Bawa phunwang, panda rapga, etc), a Tibetan version of the New Model Army in England would have been developed and attempt to conquer at least parts of Amdo and Kham. There were had have been as much bloodshed, if not more, than what happened as a result of China's occupation. It is a highly likely scenario.

Read malcolm gladwell's book "The Outliers". In it there is a chapter where he states that if your ancestors were herders or warriors for a consecutive number of generations, the warrior gene is firmly ingrained in your genetic memory. That warrior gene is still alive in the Tibetan people, but it hasn't been triggered yet because of nearly a millennia of having philosophy of humility and pacifism shoved in their faces. The gene only seems to surface when Tibetans get too drunk at losar (new year) parties or bars and use it to fight amongst ourselves (speaking from experience)


The last 150 years of Tibetan history :

The Amdo rebellion of the 1830s lasted for almost 30 years and showed everybody how weak Qing was when the Qing couldn't protect Mongols and Uighurs against Amdo tribes in Gansu and Qinghai.

The Ngyarong Khampa rebellion of mid 1800s lasted for over 10 years and wiped out Qing and Lhasa influence from Kham.

Ngyarong Khampas defeated Qing and local Khampa tribes to form one of the biggest but short living Tibetan state. This stated extended from Ganzi in the east to golok in the north to Chamdo in the west. Almost all of Kham and huge portions of Amdo paid fealty to the Ngyarongwas. This short lived state was destroyed by the Lhasa when it united all the enemies of Ngyarong and defeated them. Afterwards almost all the Buddhist monasteries in Ngyarong and Jialrong were converted into yellow hat sect monasteries.

The Deqin Khampa rebellion of the early 1900s resulted in QIng invasion which led to Qing resurgence in tibet for few years.

The Sichuan and Qinghai wars of Lhasan against the KMT.

The Amdo Golok rebellion of 1910s which lasted for well over 30 years.

The Khampa rebellion of the mid 1930s against the Lhasa.

The khampa/amdo rebellion of 1956 -1976 against PLA.

Not much peace in Kham and Amdo areas but central Tibetans had relatively more peaceful existence.

PS: I have not included many small rebellions because that will take whole pages.
Also don't forget how Tibetan and Mongol soldiers
The last 150 years of Tibetan history :

The Amdo rebellion of the 1830s lasted for almost 30 years and showed everybody how weak Qing was when the Qing couldn't protect Mongols and Uighurs against Amdo tribes in Gansu and Qinghai.

The Ngyarong Khampa rebellion of mid 1800s lasted for over 10 years and wiped out Qing and Lhasa influence from Kham.

Ngyarong Khampas defeated Qing and local Khampa tribes to form one of the biggest but short living Tibetan state. This stated extended from Ganzi in the east to golok in the north to Chamdo in the west. Almost all of Kham and huge portions of Amdo paid fealty to the Ngyarongwas. This short lived state was destroyed by the Lhasa when it united all the enemies of Ngyarong and defeated them. Afterwards almost all the Buddhist monasteries in Ngyarong and Jialrong were converted into yellow hat sect monasteries.

The Deqin Khampa rebellion of the early 1900s resulted in QIng invasion which led to Qing resurgence in tibet for few years.

The Sichuan and Qinghai wars of Lhasan against the KMT.

The Amdo Golok rebellion of 1910s which lasted for well over 30 years.

The Khampa rebellion of the mid 1930s against the Lhasa.

The khampa/amdo rebellion of 1956 -1976 against PLA.

Not much peace in Kham and Amdo areas but central Tibetans had relatively more peaceful existence.

PS: I have not included many small rebellions because that will take whole pages.
 
Jul 2014
1,638
world
Songtsen-la,

don't forget the sacrifices of the tribesmen in amdo ngawa/sharkhog (where my maternal grandfather was from) who made the qianlong emperor tremble in his throne and exhausted his army which was seasoned from years of warfare against the Dzungar mongols (who ravaged utsang) and in the jungles of Burma. 600,000 qing soldiers humbled by only 30,000 strong-willed Amdowas and gyalrongwas.
I did not know that Amdo tribes participated in the Jinchuan wars. I know many Amdo clans trace their descent from the Aba/Gyalrong but did not know the relation was that close.
 
Jan 2018
4
བོད་ཆེན་པོ།
I did not know that Amdo tribes participated in the Jinchuan wars. I know many Amdo clans trace their descent from the Aba/Gyalrong but did not know the relation was that close.
Really sorry for the insanely long response, but I only know from oral sources. People from Gyarong and Amdo Ngawa and that whole area in general share some degree of blood kinship so it's entirely possible some of my predecessors participated in the campaign. unfortunately I don't keep in that much contact with my relatives in Amdo Ngawa (Sichuan).