Sources on Balhae (Bohai)

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,705
United States
#11
Well there were a number of successor states to Parhae in the tenth and eleventh centuries, which the Khitan continually fought against. And 'Bohai' is still recognised as a distinct ethno-cultural group throughout the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which shows they still had yet to Sinicize or Jurchenize by the fourteenth century. This would indicate to me that they may very well have still spoken a native language. Given that the surnames of Bohai peoples in this period often show descent from Koguryo groups (mainly the Da clan), we could well suppose that they still spoke a form of Koreanic. However, with the rise of the Jurchens in the eleventh century, it's likely that Tungusic became the Manchurian lingua franca in this period. Whether this process began prior to 926 though, I'm not sure. There's some Chinese scholarship that discusses (in part) Parhae language that I'm trying to track down, so I will let you know if I find anything further - although, like most aspects of Parhae history, language is a hotly contested issue still, so there isn't much consensus anyways.
Okay wow I was not aware of that. Thanks.
 
Sep 2012
1,070
Taiwan
#12
No problem! :)

Jesse Sloane does some work on this, his 'Mapping a Stateless Nation: "Bohai" Identity in the Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries' is a good read on the post-Parhae Bohai peoples. He is largely silent on language though, presumably because the evidence simply isn't there either way. Beyond the scope of my current thesis though, so I haven't had too much time to delve into it. Maybe when I do my PhD :lol:
 

Haakbus

Ad Honorem
Aug 2013
3,705
United States
#13
No problem! :)

Jesse Sloane does some work on this, his 'Mapping a Stateless Nation: "Bohai" Identity in the Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries' is a good read on the post-Parhae Bohai peoples. He is largely silent on language though, presumably because the evidence simply isn't there either way. Beyond the scope of my current thesis though, so I haven't had too much time to delve into it. Maybe when I do my PhD :lol:
Ah sweet it's on jstor.

I need to get back into the whole Koguryo and Jurchen ethnicity and language debate. Been focusing on Korean Three Kingdoms state formation in detail way too much. :D
 
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Jan 2016
583
United States, MO
#14
Well there were a number of successor states to Parhae in the tenth and eleventh centuries, which the Khitan continually fought against. And 'Bohai' is still recognised as a distinct ethno-cultural group throughout the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which shows they still had yet to Sinicize or Jurchenize by the fourteenth century. This would indicate to me that they may very well have still spoken a native language. Given that the surnames of Bohai peoples in this period often show descent from Koguryo groups (mainly the Da clan), we could well suppose that they still spoke a form of Koreanic. However, with the rise of the Jurchens in the eleventh century, it's likely that Tungusic became the Manchurian lingua franca in this period. Whether this process began prior to 926 though, I'm not sure. There's some Chinese scholarship that discusses (in part) Parhae language that I'm trying to track down, so I will let you know if I find anything further - although, like most aspects of Parhae history, language is a hotly contested issue still, so there isn't much consensus anyways.
What successor states do you refer too? After the annexation of dongdan in 936 by the Khitans haven’t heard of any states rising up afterwards during the course of the dynasty.
 
Sep 2016
534
天下
#15
What successor states do you refer too? After the annexation of dongdan in 936 by the Khitans haven’t heard of any states rising up afterwards during the course of the dynasty.
There were three:
1. 定安 Ding'an, formed by Lie Wanhua (烈万华) in 936. Last time it is heard of is in 989
2. 興遼 Xingliao, formed by Da Yanlin (大延琳) in 1029, but pacified next year.
3. 大渤海 Great Bohai/大元 Great Yuan, formed by Gao Yongchang (高永昌) in 1116, but destoyed 4 months later.

Also there was a rebel leader named Guyu 古欲, a Bohai person whose ancestors were resettled into the vinicity of the Upper Capital of Liao. In 1115 he rose in rebellion and declared himself a Great King 大王. His rebellion was pacified after 3 months.
 
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