Spain and north Africa (XVIth century).

May 2017
1,186
France
Hello everybody and dear (very strong) specialists.Why didn t try Carlos V and Philip II to take the control of all the coasts of north Africa ?
 

betgo

Ad Honorem
Jul 2011
6,431
I don't know much about this, but I don't understand. I didn't think Spain took much of North Africa in the 16th century or otherwise. Spain built a huge overseas empire in America and the Philippines. However, Europe did not have the big technological advantage over North Africa that it had in other areas. It wouldn't have been easy. Also, Spain was busy with all sorts of wars elsewhere.
 

Tulius

Ad Honorem
May 2016
5,983
Portugal
But the Spanish indeed tried to control the coast of North of Africa, and not only in Morocco (in Morocco there was a division between the Portuguese area and the Castilian one), the peak of this effort was between the beginning the century and failure of the 1541 expedition, so well before Filipe’s II ruling days, here are some of the highlights:

Mers El Kébir - Wikipedia

Spanish conquest of Oran (1509) - Wikipedia

Peñón of Algiers - Wikipedia

Spanish conquest of Tripoli (1510) - Wikipedia

Jornada de los Gelves (1510) - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Jornada de los Gelves (1520) - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Conquest of Tunis (1535) - Wikipedia

Algiers expedition (1541) - Wikipedia

See also, a kind of a summary:

Essay: Habsburg-Ottoman Mediterranean Conflicts (16th century)
 
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martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,672
Spain
Late 15th century, the Turks began the conquests of Venetian possessions in Morea. That was when La Serenissima asked Ferdinand the Catholic, the winner of Grenada, for help. Ferdinand... although he never trusted the Venetians (or anyone else) decided to help them to protect their communications with Italy and to have the Adriatic way open. He sent his fleet to the defense of Rhodes and that is why North Africa gained new importance for Spain because it became a grave threat to the Spanish coasts and it was convenient to establish the Spanish presence in those regions . (Source: De la Torre, A. Documentos sobre las relaciones internacionales de los Reyes Católicos, 6 volumens, 1949 - 1956. Barcelona. Pages 194 and 1995). It was a kind of "continuation" with the "Reconquista" (a word never used in those centuries). Of course, there were others reasons.. as social, economic, religious, etc Spain was a society built around the War against Islam.... so, the Catholic King needed to continue the war against Islam... or to have trouble with the Nobility....(Source: Alonso Acebo, B. Cisneros y la conquista española del norte de África. Cruzada política y arte de la guerra. Madrid. 2006. Page 58).

Catholic Monarchs (Elisabeth and Ferdinand) legitimized their actions in North Africa... going to the Pope, who dictated bulls in their favor in the years 1493 and 1494 (Pope was a kind of N.U. for our world).

Both Monarchs had designed a high-level policy with each of the North African regions. They did not intend to conquer entire kingdoms ... but a series of strategic enclaves:

- Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera to dominate the politically invertebrate Moroccan tribes belonging to the Kingdom of Fez
- Oran, Mazalquivir (Mers-el-Kebir), Peñón of Algers to dominate the kingdom of Tlemcen
- Bugia, Bona and La Goleta for the kingdom of Tunis
-The Kingdom of Tunis (Catholic Monarchs´vassal kingdom) opposite the Kingdom of Cairuan and the untamed tribes of Alabares
- Tripoli as advanced position against the Turk.

In turn, each of these enclaves corresponded to a security area of the kingdoms of Spain:

- Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera with Andalusia
- Oran, Mazalquivir and Peñón of Algers with the kingdoms of Murcia, Valencia, Majorca and Principality of Catalonia.
- Bugia, Bona, La Goleta and Tunis with the Spanish kingdoms in Italy: Sicily, Naples and Sardinia
- Malta and Tripoli as defense hinges against any Turkish advance towards the Central Mediterranean .. vital space for the intrereses of the Spanish Monarchy.

Before the poisoned inheritance came ... the curse of the Burgundy House! the policy of both Elisabeth and Ferdinand was successful ... a success that the King Charles I still maintained .... the Muslim kingdoms of Tlemcen and Tunis were recognized in the treaties signed as vassals of the Catholic King and were forced to serve him with sappers, mules , stone and lime.

The kingdom of Fez was a kind of Portugues-Castilian protectorate...

(Sources: Sánchez Gijón, A. La Goleta, Bona, Bugia y África. Los presidios del reino de Túnez y la política mediterránea del Emperador. Madrid. 2000. pages 625 and 626).
 
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martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,672
Spain
Congratulations dear Mr Martin.Please in which university did you studie all that ?

Dear Dupuy.. I studied in Barcelona and Praha... i will never forget my student days in Chodov! and our secret parties in Kunratice) . but it was not history....


As you know Grenada fell down in January in 1492... From that moment, Hernando de Zafra encouraged the Catholic Monarchs to continue the fight on the other side of the strait. In 1493, two Biscay captains from Biscay, Garci López de Arriarán and Juan de Lezcano established contact with rebel tribes of Tlemcén who promised vassalage to Elisabeth and Ferdinand in exchange for releasing them from the king of Tlemcen. But the war with Charles VIII of France forced them to postpone those plans.
On February 13th, 1495 a new Pope´s bull (Ineffabilis et summi) granted the Catholic Monarchs as many lands as they could conquer in Africa. And in those moments, the presumed imminent victory in the Italian campaign allowed Ferdinanand the Catholic to propose again his operation against Melilla. Finally, in 1497, after a detailed process of information gathering, Ferdinand seized Melilla, whose government was granted to the Duke of Medina - Sidonia. (Source: Bravo Nieto, A. La ocupación de Melilla en 1497 y las relaciones entre los Reyes Católicos y el duque de Medina - Sidonia in Aldaba. Number 15th. 1983. Pages 15 - 39).

Regards:

My days in France also are unnforgettable...I lived in the Mayollet in Roanne. Those were the days friend!... The life was a big party... as Hemingway would have said!
 
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May 2017
1,186
France
Thank you.On french TV,in 1992,we have seen a very interesting broadcoast about an extraordinary collection of archives about the spanish America,kept in Spain by the wife of ...i have forgotten her name.She told that the collections of those exceptional manuscrits are at the disposition of serious historians and not to the journalists who tried to make sensational articles of press about the "black legend"....In Spain,i have tried to find the remarquable volumes of the "marques of Ensenada" about the provinces of Guadalajara and Leon,but they were "agotados"...
 

martin76

Ad Honorem
Dec 2014
6,672
Spain
Thank you.On french TV,in 1992,we have seen a very interesting broadcoast about an extraordinary collection of archives about the spanish America,kept in Spain by the wife of ...i have forgotten her name.She told that the collections of those exceptional manuscrits are at the disposition of serious historians and not to the journalists who tried to make sensational articles of press about the "black legend"....In Spain,i have tried to find the remarquable volumes of the "marques of Ensenada" about the provinces of Guadalajara and Leon,but they were "agotados"...

Maybe you are talking about House of Medina Sidonia´s General archive.

About Ensenada.. it is difficult to find

Here it is the Ensenada´s cadastre
 
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