Stone tool technology of Africa

Oct 2015
275
Florida, USA
#11
In reality it is not so simple, methalurgy was used before the Incas, in reality fully developed metallurgy appeared in the Moche culture from that it developed in the Andean region, byt the times of the Chimú metallurgy was used as weapons, armors adornments, in reality metallurgy was them exported from the Andes to Mesoamerica, in the Chiapa region of Mexico and in the Maya cities of the Post-classic period metal in the forms of Bronze and cooper there is a misconseption that metal was not used in most of americas in realty it was much more widespread tham most people think for this matter that we dont use the terms like Neolithic, Bronze age, like in the world, in the americans it is used Formative period, lithic and other.
http://faculty.eas.ualberta.ca/wolfe/eprints/cooke_encyclopedia_chp.pdf
The Maya Archaeometallurgy Project at* Lamanai
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https://books.google.com.br/books/a...ir_Relatives.html?id=2W4LAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y
I am full aware of metallurgy in the New World. I never said it was only the Inca. However they were the only ones known to smelt it in furnaces. Even natives of the great lakes had metal tools made from Native copper surface deposits. No evidence suggests that it was smelted in furnaces. It's a naturally soft and forgeable material. However the vast majority of Native Americans were still in the stone age. I'm also fully aware of what the term "Neolithic" encompasses. It's a term that refers strictly to a time period in Eurasia and the Mediterranean. However I felt it was an appropriate term from comparison sake. (ie: Medieval Africa)
 
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Oct 2015
275
Florida, USA
#12
they had neolithic bone tools. It's just archaeological evidence is hard to come by in the African environemnt, with deserts, savannah, and rainforests.

Most humans around the world were exact technologically until the ancient period. This is when Europe, India, the Middle East and China moved ahead (Indus Valley, Bablyon/Mesopotamia, Song Dynasty/Three Kingdoms, etc.)
I know they had bone tools but I was inquiring about polished/ground stone tools. That was the intermediate stage between chipped stone and metal in most regions. Seeing as Africans transitioned directly to steel, I'm wondering if they ever had a ground/polished technology prior to steel.
In reality it is not so simple, methalurgy was used before the Incas, in reality fully developed metallurgy appeared in the Moche culture from that it developed in the Andean region, byt the times of the Chimú metallurgy was used as weapons, armors adornments, in reality metallurgy was them exported from the Andes to Mesoamerica, in the Chiapa region of Mexico and in the Maya cities of the Post-classic period metal in the forms of Bronze and cooper there is a misconseption that metal was not used in most of americas in realty it was much more widespread tham most people think for this matter that we dont use the terms like Neolithic, Bronze age, like in the world, in the americans it is used Formative period, lithic and other.
http://faculty.eas.ualberta.ca/wolfe/eprints/cooke_encyclopedia_chp.pdf
The Maya Archaeometallurgy Project at* Lamanai
An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie
https://books.google.com.br/books/a...ir_Relatives.html?id=2W4LAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y
 

Edgewaters

Ad Honorem
Jul 2007
9,098
Canada
#13
In reality it is not so simple, methalurgy was used before the Incas, in reality fully developed metallurgy appeared in the Moche culture from that it developed in the Andean regionhttps://books.google.com.br/books/about/Axe_monies_and_Their_Relatives.html?id=2W4LAAAAYAAJ&redir_esc=y
It's earlier than the Moche, it was first developed (and taken to its highest forms) by two related cultures, Muisca and Tairona, who inhabited Columbia and northern Peru. It diffused from there into the Andes, but passed north less efficiently because of the difficult terrain along the Panama border.
 

Edgewaters

Ad Honorem
Jul 2007
9,098
Canada
#14
I am full aware of metallurgy in the New World. I never said it was only the Inca. However they were the only ones known to smelt it in furnaces.
All the Andean cultures used smelting to separate ore and were also able to create alloyed metals, as did other groups from Colombia (Muisca) to Argentina (Mapuche).

At least one group in Central America - the Purempeche - also smelted metal and created alloys such as bronze.
 
Oct 2015
275
Florida, USA
#15
All the Andean cultures used smelting to separate ore and were also able to create alloyed metals, as did other groups from Colombia (Muisca) to Argentina (Mapuche).

At least one group in Central America - the Purempeche - also smelted metal and created alloys such as bronze.

Ugh... you guys are missing the entire point and I'm sure you know what I meant. Obviously not specifically the Inca and only the Inca. My whole point was that MOST Native Americans did not have metal tools and I used the Inca as an example of one of the "few exceptions." Also I never claimed that they were the only ones to have developed it in that region either. I thought you could have used your common sense. It would be no different from saying that the Romans developed aqueducts. Aqueducts were created by many other groups in and around the Roman empire but the Romans were the most influential thus the obvious ones to reference. Most cultures around the world never developed aqueducts.
 
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Edgewaters

Ad Honorem
Jul 2007
9,098
Canada
#16
Ugh... you guys are missing the entire point and I'm sure you know what I meant. Obviously not specifically the Inca and only the Inca. My whole point was that MOST Native Americans did not have metal tools and I used the Inca as an example of one of the "few exceptions."
Most of them lived in Central or South America, where metallurgy was known. The "few exceptions" are the North American natives, whose numbers were quite tiny by comparison.
 

Tairusiano

Ad Honorem
Jun 2012
2,959
Brazil
#17
I am full aware of metallurgy in the New World. I never said it was only the Inca. However they were the only ones known to smelt it in furnaces. Even natives of the great lakes had metal tools made from Native copper surface deposits. No evidence suggests that it was smelted in furnaces.
Like Edgewaters said in reality smelting in furnaces was done in the continent, there was armors in the Peru museum made of Bronze alloy even made of silver and cooper, and there was evidence that they smelted in furnaces, a more profund study would show that
here a link from the university of pittsburg about Pre Inca metalurgy even with
http://www.pitt.edu/~mabbott1/climate/mark/Abstracts/Pubs/AbbottWolfe03Sicence.pdf
http://www.pitt.edu/~mabbott1/climate/mark/Abstracts/Pubs/Cookeetal07EST.pdf

more sources:
https://books.google.com.br/books?i...8CXcQ6AEINjAG#v=onepage&q=huayrachina&f=false
https://books.google.com.br/books?i...MzAD#v=onepage&q=huayrachina furnaces&f=false
http://www.jstor.org/stable/30042484?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
 
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Tairusiano

Ad Honorem
Jun 2012
2,959
Brazil
#18
I am full aware of metallurgy in the New World. I never said it was only the Inca. However they were the only ones known to smelt it in furnaces. Even natives of the great lakes had metal tools made from Native copper surface deposits. No evidence suggests that it was smelted in furnaces.
Like Edgewaters said in reality smelting in furnaces was done in the continent, there was armors in the Peru museum made of Bronze alloy even made of silver and cooper, and there was evidence that they smelted in furnaces, a more profund study would show that
here a link from the university of pittsburg about Pre Inca metalurgy even with
http://www.pitt.edu/~mabbott1/climate/mark/Abstracts/Pubs/AbbottWolfe03Sicence.pdf
http://www.pitt.edu/~mabbott1/climate/mark/Abstracts/Pubs/Cookeetal07EST.pdf


more sources:
https://books.google.com.br/books?i...8CXcQ6AEINjAG#v=onepage&q=huayrachina&f=false
https://books.google.com.br/books?i...MzAD#v=onepage&q=huayrachina furnaces&f=false
Huayrachinas and Tocochimbos: Traditional Smelting Technology of the Southern Andes on JSTOR
 

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