Strong ethnic and regional parties

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,943
SoCal
#1
Which political parties (in democratic or semi-democratic countries, obviously) had a strong ethnic and/or regional appeal but very little support from outside of the relevant ethnic group or region?

The German Empire appears to have had several such parties. Specifically, ethnic and/or regional parties consistently won elections to the Imperial German Reichstag in Alsace-Lorraine (which was a part of France until 1871 and again since 1918), parts of Hanover (which was an independent state up to 1866, when it was conquered by Prussia), northern Schleswig (which was a part of Denmark until 1864), most of the Polish Corridor, Posen Province, and sometimes parts of Upper Silesia as well (all of which were Polish-majority and the first two of which were a part of Poland until the partitions). In addition, such parties occasionally won elections to the Imperial German Reichstag in the Memelland (which had a large Lithuanian population). Indeed, here is a map of the results of the 1912 Imperial German Reichstag elections:



The same pattern was also visible in earlier Imperial German Reichstag elections:































Anyway, what other cases of consistently strong ethnic and/or regional parties have there been?
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,943
SoCal
#2
A similar pattern was visible in the 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly elections--where a lot of Ukrainians, Caucasians, Central Asians, and Estonians in northern Estonia voted for their own ethnic and/or regional parties:

 
Likes: Rodger

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,943
SoCal
#4
Republican Party before the ACW.
Excellent example! Before the American Civil War, the support of the Republican Party was exclusively limited to the North and West. Heck, didn't many Southern U.S. states even refuse to put the Republican Party on their ballots?

In contrast, even in the days of the Solid South, the Democrats were often competitive elsewhere in the U.S. as well.
 

betgo

Ad Honorem
Jul 2011
6,276
#5
Excellent example! Before the American Civil War, the support of the Republican Party was exclusively limited to the North and West. Heck, didn't many Southern U.S. states even refuse to put the Republican Party on their ballots?

In contrast, even in the days of the Solid South, the Democrats were often competitive elsewhere in the U.S. as well.
You needed so many signatures to get on the ballot and the Republican Party couldn't get them in most southern states.
 
Likes: Futurist

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,943
SoCal
#6
You needed so many signatures to get on the ballot and the Republican Party couldn't get them in most southern states.
That makes sense.

Plus, wasn't anti-slavery speech suppressed in the Southern U.S. before the ACW? If so, couldn't potential Republican activists have been silenced that way? (Of course, I'm presuming that the threat of being lynched was also very real.)
 

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,943
SoCal
#7
I know that in Britain, ever since the 1880s, the Irish (with the exception of Protestants in northern Ireland) voted for Irish parties--first for the Irish Parliamentary Party (before WWI) and then for Sein Fenn (after WWI). Here are maps of the 1910 elections (there were two of them) and the 1918 elections for the UK:







Obviously Scots voted for their own party (or is it parties?) in the 21st century, but I'm especially looking for strong ethnic and regional parties from 1950 or earlier.
 

betgo

Ad Honorem
Jul 2011
6,276
#8
That makes sense.

Plus, wasn't anti-slavery speech suppressed in the Southern U.S. before the ACW? If so, couldn't potential Republican activists have been silenced that way? (Of course, I'm presuming that the threat of being lynched was also very real.)
Not sure if there were Republican activists in the south. It is mostly between the Americans (Know Nothings) and the Democrats. Many Whigs became Americans and weren't especially concerned about immigration. The Maryland legislature appointed an American Senator named Kennedy who was half Irish.

Abolitionist literature was banned in the south. Not sure if abolitionists or Republicans tried to speak in the south. Abolitionist Elija Lovejoy was lynched in southern Illinois.

I believe that Lincoln was on the ballot and got 3% of the vote in Maryland and 1% in Virginia, almost all in what later became West Virginia. There was no secret ballot, and voting for Lincoln in most parts of either of those states was probably dangerous, or at least would result in a lot of teasing. Besides, it was sort of wasting the vote, as the contest in the south was between the Southern Democrat and Constitutional Union Presidential candidates.
 
Likes: Futurist

Futurist

Ad Honoris
May 2014
20,943
SoCal
#9
Not sure if there were Republican activists in the south. It is mostly between the Americans (Know Nothings) and the Democrats. Many Whigs became Americans and weren't especially concerned about immigration. The Maryland legislature appointed an American Senator named Kennedy who was half Irish.

Abolitionist literature was banned in the south. Not sure if abolitionists or Republicans tried to speak in the south. Abolitionist Elija Lovejoy was lynched in southern Illinois.

I believe that Lincoln was on the ballot and got 3% of the vote in Maryland and 1% in Virginia, almost all in what later became West Virginia. There was no secret ballot, and voting for Lincoln in most parts of either of those states was probably dangerous, or at least would result in a lot of teasing. Besides, it was sort of wasting the vote, as the contest in the south was between the Southern Democrat and Constitutional Union Presidential candidates.
Being able to freely publish literature is a part of free speech, no? Indeed, I've read that the lack of free speech in the antebellum South helped result in a push among Northerners to have the bill of rights apply to the states after the end of the American Civil War (through the 14th Amendment).