The first Muslim dynasty of Kashmir was established by Swatis of Tajik-Afghan roots

Aug 2014
1,079
pakistan
#1
By Khan Barmazid


The Swati Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty originally from Swat, who ruled on Kashmir for nearly 222 years from 1339 to 1561. Shah Mir Swati, an adventurer from Swat, under the title of Sultan Shamas-ud-Din founded the dynasty. He belonged to the ruling clan of Swat, the Gabaris who styled themselves "Sultans".

Gabaris were rulers and inhabitants of an extensive area comprising of Swat, Buner, Bajaur, Kunar, Nangarhar, Laghman, Pakhli , Ashnaghar , Qarluq Hazara, and their sway extended in east as far as river Jehlum. They claimed descent from Sikander Zolqurnain (Cyrus the great) and were called 'Sultans'. The Sultan here do not refer to any monarch , it is a mere title by which the Gabari chief and their families were styled. Gabari Tajiks were Zoroastrians before acceptance of Islam and migrated to Swat in 1190 AD during the reign of Sultan Shahabuddin Ghauri. Their initial seat was Kunar under Sultan Pakhl which later shifted to Swat. They spoke Dari and Gabari (dialect of ancient Persian) at the time of invasion of Yousafzais. In 1399 they lost Kunar, Laghman and Kabul to Amir Timur. The Sultan Haider Ali of Bajaur who was defeated by Babur in 1519, belonged to the Gabari clan.

Swatis were divided into three great septs, Gabari, Mamiali and Mitravi of which the first claim to be Tajik, the Mamiali Yousafzai, and the Mitravi claims to be of Durrani origin. The Mamiali and Mitravi clans were called "Dihgaan"........When Yousafzais invaded Swat, the Mitravi clan of Swatis did not side with Sultan Awais (Gabari ruler of Swat). According to Khwaja Malezai (contemporary of Emperor Akbar), Mitravi clan of Swatis described themselves as descendants of Yousafzais who separated from the parent clan in Kandahar and migrated to Swat long before the arrival of Yousafzais in the region under Malik Ahmad.

References:

1- "Tajik Swat wa Mamlikat Gabar Tareekh kay Aainay main" by Professor Muhammad Akhtar
2- "Notes on Afghanistan and part of Baluchistan" by H.G.Raverty
 
Aug 2014
1,079
pakistan
#4
Thanks for the info.

But can you provide more proof that Gabari was a dialect of Persian (Babur considers it its own language) and a first hand source calling them Tajik? I believe it is more likely that they were Dardics.
The author of "Tajik Swat wa Mamlikat Gabar Tareekh kay Aainay main" is claiming that it was Pahlavi dialect, perhaps he is claiming it on the basis of the H.W.Bellew's claim.

It certainly was distinct from Farsi , as Akhund Darweza says that Farsi and Gabari was spoken in Swat before Yousafzais......

A Gabari from Charsadda , who is added with me on facebook, is researching about history of his people. He is telling me that they have old tradition that they are Tajiks. I dont know whether word Tajik is used for them in any medieval source.
 
Feb 2014
1,429
Asia
#6
Here are some excerpts from the book of AQ Rafiq:

"The Hindu rulers of Kashmir seem to have been munificent and hospitable to the Muslim soldiers of fortune, who continued to enter the valley until the establishment of Muslim rule; it was one of these Muslim adventurers, Shah Mir, who established the first Muslim sultanate in Kashmir. According to some Persian chronicles of Kashmir, Shah Mir was a descendant of the rulers of Swat, but it is more probable that his ancestors were of Turkish or Persian origin and had migrated to Swat.

Shah Mir arrived in Kashmir in 1313, along with his family, during the reign of Suhadeva (1301–20), whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability, Shah Mir rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time. Later, after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Suhadeva, he was able to assume the kingship himself and thus laid the foundation of permanent Muslim rule in Kashmir.
"

The name Shah Mir looks more like Persian. In 14th century we also have famous Sufi Saint Shah Hamadan who came from Persia to spread Islam in Kashmir. The most respected Sufi Saint in Kashmir.
 
Jun 2015
896
Your Attic
#8
The author of "Tajik Swat wa Mamlikat Gabar Tareekh kay Aainay main" is claiming that it was Pahlavi dialect, perhaps he is claiming it on the basis of the H.W.Bellew's claim.

It certainly was distinct from Farsi , as Akhund Darweza says that Farsi and Gabari was spoken in Swat before Yousafzais......

A Gabari from Charsadda , who is added with me on facebook, is researching about history of his people. He is telling me that they have old tradition that they are Tajiks. I dont know whether word Tajik is used for them in any medieval source.
Bellew is extremely unreliable though, he has made allot of outlandish claims.

If it was distinct from Farsi i doubt that it was a dialect of Pahlavi. Laghmani is also mentioned by Babur as a separate language so maybe these were different Dardic languages?
 
Jun 2015
896
Your Attic
#9
Here are some excerpts from the book of AQ Rafiq:

"The Hindu rulers of Kashmir seem to have been munificent and hospitable to the Muslim soldiers of fortune, who continued to enter the valley until the establishment of Muslim rule; it was one of these Muslim adventurers, Shah Mir, who established the first Muslim sultanate in Kashmir. According to some Persian chronicles of Kashmir, Shah Mir was a descendant of the rulers of Swat, but it is more probable that his ancestors were of Turkish or Persian origin and had migrated to Swat.

Shah Mir arrived in Kashmir in 1313, along with his family, during the reign of Suhadeva (1301–20), whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability, Shah Mir rose to prominence and became one of the important personalities of the time. Later, after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Suhadeva, he was able to assume the kingship himself and thus laid the foundation of permanent Muslim rule in Kashmir.
"

The name Shah Mir looks more like Persian. In 14th century we also have famous Sufi Saint Shah Hamadan who came from Persia to spread Islam in Kashmir. The most respected Sufi Saint in Kashmir.
So Shah Mir was not related to the rulers of Swat according to this source?
 
Feb 2014
1,429
Asia
#10
Persian is the most likely theory I think.

They could be Dardic, as you said. But we have another Dard dynasty called Chak originating at the same time. The name of Chaks like Lankar, Pandu, Kaji clearly refelct the Dardic nature.

On the other hand names like Shah Mir, Jamshed, Sikander reflects the Persian nature.

Some scholars also propose the Turkic origin, but I think there is no Turkic element in the names of Shah Mir rulers.