The Hallstatt - La Tène model is definitely out !

Aug 2015
14
Belgium
I would like to present my latest paper on the genesis of Celtic. See:
https://www.academia.edu/9796216/Ce...ic_linguistic_prehistory_-_Updated_16.04.2017

It proposes new details on the origin and role of Hallstatt: a secondary center of Celtic, but only of P-Celtic (and ONLY that!). It reconciles, in some, but restricted, way, 'Celtic from the West' with the old ideas about Hallstatt-La Tène. The rise of Hallstatt would be due to the local Celts (coming from Gaul) starting to participate in the cultural and economic highway of the fluvial amber route between the Baltic and the Black Sea, thanks to their possession of a prized commodity (at least in Central Europe): (rock) salt.

It also provides a plausible explanation of the virtually simultaneous labialization (kw > p, gw > b, s > h) of Celtic, Italic and Greek (around 1200-1000 BCE), through the formation of a Sprachbund mainly in former Yugoslavia (from Hallstatt to Epirus). Lepontic is part of that.
 

authun

Ad Honorem
Aug 2011
4,674
It proposes new details on the origin and role of Hallstatt: a secondary center of Celtic, but only of P-Celtic (and ONLY that!). It reconciles, in some, but restricted, way, 'Celtic from the West' with the old ideas about Hallstatt-La Tène. The rise of Hallstatt would be due to the local Celts (coming from Gaul) starting to participate in the cultural and economic highway of the fluvial amber route between the Baltic and the Black Sea, thanks to their possession of a prized commodity (at least in Central Europe): (rock) salt.
You might be interested in Andre Garrett's theory on language evolution which hypothesises that lingusitic groups such as Celtic or Italic formed directly by conversion of dialects of a southern indo european language. It differs from the more usual divergent tree like model and doesn't require evolutionary branches, proto italo celtic => italo celtic => proto italic + proto celtic => italic + celtic and so on. It does away to some extent with the concept of groups wandering around europe mirroring the development of the languages. Garrett suggests that southern indo european entered the south of europe and the various italo celtic dialects were formed in situ.

Convergence in the Formation of Indo-European
Subgroups: Phylogeny and Chronology


Hallstatt had been a salt mining area since the neolithic but was a major source of production during the bronze age. The graves do show amber jewellery but it is likely that this was obtained by the copper miners in nearby Bischofshofen trading copper with traders from the nordic bronze age. The Bischofshofen miners probably got their salt from Hallstatt and traded the amber on.

Salt mining ceased during the late bronze age at Hallstatt due to landslides which blocked the mines. It is 400 years later before new mines were opened, in the iron age. We have therefore a 400 year discontinuity the end of which coincides with the start of the 'celtic' iron age. We don't know if this is a new population or the old population recovering. Pig farming and meat curing were also major industries at Hallstatt. My own sense is that food production and preservation, smoked and salted meat, as well as production of salt as a raw material, was what made Hallstatt wealthy, but the goods are traded. It was not a politically important centre. There are wealthy graves, but no 'princely graves'.

This video, Kingdom of Salt is about Hallstatt. Despite the opening titles, it is in english.

https://vimeo.com/128576785
 
Aug 2015
14
Belgium
I tend to agree with what is said about Italic (actually I call it 'Italoid' in my paper, because of the wider variety than is normally understood by 'Italic'). As to Celtic, I remain convinced it descended from just one Italoid language (much later evolved into Lusitanian) that reached Lisbon around 2,200 BCE. It was profoundly changed under Basque-Iberian influence (loss of /p/, ergative tendencies...) and to a minor degree by Afro-Asiatic in the extreme south (VSO order,...). This also means that I don't believe there ever was any 'Italo-Celtic', just Proto-Celtic, derived from one Italoid language under rather unique circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula, circumstances that never existed anywhere else.
 

authun

Ad Honorem
Aug 2011
4,674
Sorry, I just had to correct two typos, where I wrote '6th c. BCE' when I meant '6th millennium BCE'.
What do you mean? Surely you do not want to correct "early Classic times (6th c. BCE, Fig. 5)" to "early Classic times (6th c. millenium BCE, Fig. 5)" do you? It's the start of the neolithic, hardly 'classic times' and we know absolutely nothing at all about the languages spoken at that time. We don't even know who the populations were other than they are not represented by the modern day populations.
 
Mar 2017
60
seashore
The language, the alphabet or runes . They got it in Italy. But Religion?? Do you believe that tiny Latin tribe could construct the Roman Empire?
 

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