The Hereditary Claims of Franz Josef

MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
3,030
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
Emperor Franz Josef (1830-1916) ruled a large realm with many lands in it. But he could make more or less valid claims to rule many other lands in Europe.

I will start off with his claim to rule Serbia.

Serbs lived in parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, and Bosnia, so Franz Josef was already the ruler of a significant proportion of the Serbs.

Franz Josef was the grand nephew of Emperor Joseph II who ruled Habsburg-occupied Serbia 1788-1792.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habsburg-occupied_Serbia_(1788%E2%80%9392)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habsburg-occupied_Serbia_(1788%E2%80%9392)#/media/File:Kocina_krajina02.png

Franz Josef was the great great grandson of Emperor Charles VI who ruled much of Serbia from 1718 to 1739.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Serbia_(1718%E2%80%9339)

Franz Josef was the great great great grandson of Emperor Leopold I whose troops apparently occupied almost all of Serbia during part of the Great Turkish War (1683-1699).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habsburg-occupied_Serbia_(1686%E2%80%9391)

Habsburg troops occupied Pristina in Kosovo until driven out by the Ottomans in January 1690.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pristina#Austrian-Turkish_War

And there is this genealogy:

1) Stefan Nemanja Grand Prince of Serbia.(c.1113-1199).
2) Vukan, oldest son, but his father chose the younger brother Stefan as his heir. Vukan could claim to be the rightful ruler of Serbia.
3) Dimitar Nemanjic - also known as Saint David Nemanjic. Son.
4) Vratislav. Son.
5) Vratko Namanjic (fl. 1325-1355) Son.
6) Milicia Nemanjic (c.1335-1405) Daughter. Married Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic (c. 1329-1389) ruler of Moravian Serbia and national hero.
7) Mara (d. 1426) Daughter. Married Vuk Brankovic.
8) Durad Brankovic (1377-1456), Son. Despot of Serbia.
9) Stefan Brankovic (c.1417-1476), Despot of Serbia. Second son but oldest to have surviving descendants.
10) Marija (d. 1495) daughter. Married Boniface III Paleologus, Margrave of Montferrat (1424-1494).
11) William IX Paleologus, Margrave of Montferrat (1486-1518). Son.
12) Boniface IV Paleologus, Margrave of Montferrat (1512-6 June 1530).
13) Maria Paleologa (1509-15 September 1530) Sister. Childless.
14) Margaret Paleologa (1510-1566) Margravine of Montferrat. Sister. Married Frederico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua.
15) Guglielmo Gonzaga (1538-1587), Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son.
16) Vincenzo Gonzaga (1562-1612) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son.
17) Francesco IV Gonzaga (1586-1612) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son.
18) Maria Gonzaga (1609-1660) Duchess of Montferrat. Daughter. Married Charles II Gonzaga (1609-1631) son of Charles I Gonzaga (1580-1637) Duke of Mantua, Nevers & Rethel son of Louis Gonzaga (1539-1595) Duke of Nevers son of # 14) Margaret Paleologa and Frederico II Gonzaga.
19) Charles II Gonzaga (1629-1665) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son.
20) Ferdinand Charles Gonzaga (1652-1708) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son. Childless.
21) Leopold (1679-1729) Duke of Lorraine and Bar. Cousin. Oldest Son of Eleonor of Austria (1653-1697), former Queen of Poland, half sister of Emperor Leopold I, Daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III and Eleonora Gonzaga (1630-1686), daughter of # 18) Maria and Charles Gonzaga.
22) Emperor Francis I Stephen (1708-1765) Duke of Lorraine, Grand duke of Tuscany. Son. married Maria Theresa the Habsburg heiress.
23) Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) Son. No surviving children.
24) Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792) Brother.
25) Emperor Francis II & I (1768-1735) Son.
26) Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) Son. Childless.
27) Archduke Franz Karl (1802-1878) Brother.
28) Emperor Franz Josef (1830-1916). Son.

If the claim should continue according to the same rule of male preference primogeniture, it would continue like this:

29) Archduchess Elizabeth (1883-1963). Granddaughter. Daughter of Crown Prince Rudolph (1858-1889).
30) Prince Franz Josef of Windisch-Graetz(1904-1981). Son.
31) Guillaume, Prince of Windisch-Graetz (born 1950). Son.

But what if the inheritance rule during the Paleologus and later dynasties goes by agnatic primogeniture - male only primogenture - until the male members of a dynasty become extinct? Then the succession would be like this:

1) Stefan Nemanja Grand Prince of Serbia.(c.1113-1199).
2) Vukan, oldest son, but his father chose the younger brother Stefan as his heir. Vukan could claim to be the rightful ruler of Serbia.
3) Dimitar Nemanjic - also known as Saint David Nemanjic. Son.
4) Vratislav. Son.
5) Vratko Namanjic (fl. 1325-1355) Son.
6) Milicia Nemanjic (c.1335-1405) Daughter. Married Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic (c. 1329-1389) ruler of Moravian Serbia and national hero.
7) Mara (d. 1426) Daughter. Married Vuk Brankovic.
8) Durad Brankovic (1377-1456), Son. Despot of Serbia.
9) Stefan Brankovic (c.1417-1476), Despot of Serbia. Second son but oldest to have surviving descendants.
10) Marija (d. 1495) daughter. Married Boniface III Paleologus, Margrave of Montferrat (1424-1494).
11) William IX Paleologus, Margrave of Montferrat (1486-1518). Son.
12) Boniface IV Paleologus, Margrave of Montferrat (1512-6 June 1530).
13) John George Paleolgus (1488-1533) Margrave of Montferrat. Uncle, son of # 10). Childless.
14) Margaret Paleologa (1510-1566) Margravine of Montferrat. Niece of # 13) & sister of # 12). Married Frederico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua.
15) Guglielmo Gonzaga (1538-1587), Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son.
16) Vincenzo Gonzaga (1562-1612) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son.
17) Francesco IV Gonzaga (1586-1612) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son. No surviing sons.
18) Ferdinand Gonzaga (1587-1626) Duke of Montferrat. Brother. Had a possible y legitimate son who died childless in 1630.
19) Vincenzo II Gonzaga (1594-1627) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Brother. No legitimate chldren.
20) Charles I Gonzaga (1580-1637) Duke of Mantua, Nevers & Rethel son of Louis Gonzaga (1539-1595) Duke of Nevers son of # 14) Margaret Paleologa and Frederico II Gonzaga.
21) Charles II Gonzaga (1629-1665) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Grandson, son of Charles II Gonzaga (1609-1631) of Nevers.
22) Ferdinand Charles Gonzaga (1652-1708) Duke of Mantua & Montferrat. Son. Childless.
23) Leopold (1679-1729) Duke of Lorraine and Bar. Cousin. Oldest Son of Eleonor of Austria (1653-1697), former Queen of Poland, half sister of Emperor Leopold I, Daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III and Eleonora Gonzaga (1630-1686), sister of
# 21) Charles II Gonzaga (1629-1665).
24) Emperor Francis I Stephen (1708-1765) Duke of Lorraine, Grand duke of Tuscany. Son. married Maria Theresa the Habsburg heiress.
25) Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) Son. No surviving children.
26) Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792) Brother.
27) Emperor Francis II & I (1768-1735) Son.
28) Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) Son. Childless.
29) Archduke Franz Karl (1802-1878) Brother.
30) Emperor Franz Josef (1830-1916). Son.

Then, if equal marriages are not considered necessary, the inheritance goes like this:

31) Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902-1962). Grand nephew, son of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) son of Archduke Karl Ludwig (1833-1896), the brother of Emperor Franz Josef.
32) Franz, Duke of Hohenberg (1927-1977) Son.
33) Georg, Duke of Hohenberg (1929-) Brother.

But if equal marriages are considered necessary the inheritance goes like this:

31) Charles I (1887-1922) Emperor of Austria. Grandnephew. Son of Archduke Otto Franz (1965-1906) son of Archduke Karl Ludwig.
32) Crown Prince Otto (1912-2011). Son.
33) Karl Von Habsburg (born 1961) Son.
 
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MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
3,030
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
Scandinavia.

Count Dietrich of Oldenburg (1398-1440) and his wife Helvig of Holstein had an oldest son named Christian (1426-1481).

King Christopher of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway died without children in 1448, and without close relatives descended from previous kings. Count Christian of Oldenburg, who was descended from Scandinavian kings several generations back, and agreed to marry Dorothea the widow of king Christopher, was elected King of Denmark in 1448. In 1450 Christian was crowned King of Norway. Christian was elected King of Sweden in 1457 but deposed in 1464.

Christian's mother's brother Adolphus VIII, Duke of Schleswig and Count of Holstein, died in 1459 and Christian became Duke of Schleswig and Count of Holstein in 1460. Emperor Frederick III promoted Christian to Duke of Holstein in 1474.

List of heirs of Christian II according to male preference primogeniture:

1) King Christian I of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, etc. (1426-1481).
2) King John of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, etc. (1455-1513). Son.
3) King Christian II of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, etc. (1481-1559). Son. deposed in 1523 by Gustave I of Sweden and by his uncle Fredrick I of Denmark and Norway.
4) Christina of Denmark (1521-1590) Daughter. Married (second) Duke Francis I of Lorraine.
5) Duke Charles III of Lorraine. Son. (1543-1608).
6) Duke Henry II of Lorraine. Son. (1563-1624).
7) Nicole of Lorraine, Duchess of Lorraine & Bar 1624/25. Daughter. (1608-1657). Married Duke Charles IV of Lorraine. Childless.
[Claude de Lorraine. Sister. (1612-1648) Married Duke Nicholas II of Lorraine.]
8) Duke Charles V of Lorraine. Nephew of Nicole, son of Claude. (1643-1690).
9) Leopold (1679-1729) Duke of Lorraine and Bar. Son.
10) Emperor Francis I Stephen (1708-1765) Duke of Lorraine, Grand duke of Tuscany. Son. married Maria Theresa the Habsburg heiress.
11) Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) Son. No surviving children.
12) Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792) Brother.
13) Emperor Francis II & I (1768-1735) Son.
14) Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) Son. Childless.
15) Archduke Franz Karl (1802-1878) Brother.
16) Emperor Franz Josef (1830-1916). Son.
[Crown Prince Rudolph (1858-1889) Son.]
17) Archduchess Elizabeth (1883-1963). Granddaughter. Daughter of Crown Prince Rudolph (1858-1889).
18) Prince Franz Josef of Windisch-Graetz(1904-1981). Son.
19) Guillaume, Prince of Windisch-Graetz (born 1950). Son.

List of heirs of King Christian II by agnatic primogeniture - by males only, until the male line descendants die out:

1) King Christian I of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, etc. (1426-1481).
2) King John of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, etc. (1455-1513). Son.
3) King Christian II of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, etc. (1481-1559). Son. deposed in 1523 by Gustave I of Sweden and by his uncle Fredrick I of Denmark and Norway.
4) Christina of Denmark (1521-1590) Daughter. Married (second) Duke Francis I of Lorraine.
5) Duke Charles III of Lorraine. Son. (1543-1608).
6) Duke Henry II of Lorraine. Son. (1563-1624).
7) Duke Francis II of Lorraine. Brother (1572-1632) Abdicated 1625.
8) Duke Charles IV of Lorraine. Son. (1604-1675)
9) Charles Henry of Lorraine. Son. (1649-1723). Legitimacy disputed. No surviving sons.
or:
9) Duke Nicolas of Lorraine. Brother of Duke Charles IV. (1609-1670).
10) Duke Charles V of Lorraine (1643-1690). Son.
11) Leopold (1679-1729) Duke of Lorraine and Bar. Son.
12) Emperor Francis I Stephen (1708-1765) Duke of Lorraine, Grand duke of Tuscany. Son. married Maria Theresa the Habsburg heiress.
13) Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) Son. No surviving children.
14) Emperor Leopold II (1747-1792) Brother.
15) Emperor Francis II & I (1768-1735) Son.
16) Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) Son. Childless.
17) Archduke Franz Karl (1802-1878) Brother.
18) Emperor Franz Josef (1830-1916). Son.

Then, if equal marriages are not considered necessary, the inheritance goes like this:

19) Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902-1962). Grand nephew, son of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) son of Archduke Karl Ludwig (1833-1896), the brother of Emperor Franz Josef.
20) Franz, Duke of Hohenberg (1927-1977) Son.
21) Georg, Duke of Hohenberg (1929-) Brother.

But if equal marriages are considered necessary the inheritance goes like this:

19) Charles I (1887-1922) Emperor of Austria. Grandnephew. Son of Archduke Otto Franz (1965-1906) son of Archduke Karl Ludwig.
21) Crown Prince Otto (1912-2011). Son.
22) Karl Von Habsburg (born 1961) Son.
 
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Tulun

Ad Honorem
Nov 2010
3,936
Western Eurasia
Franz Joseph had the king of Serbia claim among his titles, but it was based on being king of Hungary, not on blood relation to the Nemanjics. Hungarian kings used the king of Serbia title among others since king Imre (Emericus) who adopted it in the 1200s (1202?) when he intervened into Serbian power struggles on the side of Vukan and made him grandzupan. The Hungarian kings also used the king of Rama (understood as Bosnia, used since the 1100s), king of Bulgaria, king of Cumania (that was meant the territory that later became Moldova and Wallachia), Galicia, Lodomeria (these all from the 13th century), etc titles since the Árpádian dynasty. All later Hungarian monarchs then used these from whatever dynasty they came since these titles were attached to the Hungarian crown. The Habsburgs and Habsburg-Lotharingians also obtained these claims and titles when they became Hungarian monarchs (first Hungarian Habsburg was king Albert between 1437-39, then later on all kings from Ferdinand I in 1526- ) and used them in their titles until the end of their rule in 1918.
 
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Apr 2010
1,075
evergreen state, USA
In one of my deep offshoot lines (maternal side) I have Theodoric Thiery (House of Metz), c.1044-1115, Duke of Upper Lorraine and Alsace. He married Hedwig of Formbach, 1055-1088.
 
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May 2015
776
Wellington, New Zealand
Franz Josef Glacier / Kā Roimata o Hine Hukatere

Franz Josef's fame has spread about as far as the World is wide!



The first European description of one of the west coast glaciers (believed to be Franz Josef) was made in the log of the ship Mary Louisa in 1859.[4] The glacier was later named after Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria by the German explorer, Julius von Haast in 1865. The Māori name for the glacier is Kā Roimata o Hine Hukatere ('The tears of Hine Hukatere')

https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Franz_Josef_Glacier#/References
 

MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
3,030
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
Franz Joseph had the king of Serbia claim among his titles, but it was based on being king of Hungary, not on blood relation to the Nemanjics. Hungarian kings used the king of Serbia title among others since king Imre (Emericus) who adopted it in the 1200s (1202?) when he intervened into Serbian power struggles on the side of Vukan and made him grandzupan. The Hungarian kings also used the king of Rama (understood as Bosnia, used since the 1100s), king of Bulgaria, king of Cumania (that was meant the territory that later became Moldova and Wallachia), Galicia, Lodomeria (these all from the 13th century), etc titles since the Árpádian dynasty. All later Hungarian monarchs then used these from whatever dynasty they came since these titles were attached to the Hungarian crown. The Habsburgs and Habsburg-Lotharingians also obtained these claims and titles when they became Hungarian monarchs (first Hungarian Habsburg was king Albert between 1437-39, then later on all kings from Ferdinand I in 1526- ) and used them in their titles until the end of their rule in 1918.
Yes, but I am saying that Franz Josef could have claimed to be the rightful hereditary king of Serbia based on descent and not on his Hungarian title.

The Hungarian titles also included King of Galicia and Lodomeria from the middle ages. And in 1772 Austria got part of Poland in the first partition and called it the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which was part of Austrian domains and never part of Hungarian domains.

Thus Franz Josef could have called himself King of Galicia and Lodomeria twice in his full title, once as part of his Austrian titles and again as part of his Hungarian titles.

His ancestor Emperor Charles VI claimed the title of King of Galicia twice in his full title, once as part of his Spanish titles and once as part of his Hungarian titles.
 

MAGolding

Ad Honorem
Aug 2015
3,030
Chalfont, Pennsylvania
The thought has occurred to me that there are other possible heirs of Emperor Franz Joseph than the three listed in my first post.

What was probably the most common rule for succession to European fiefs and kingdoms was male preference primogeniture, in which the heir would ideally be the oldest son of the ruler, but the fief or kingdom would be inherited by the oldest daughter if there wasn't any son. According to that rule the heirs of Franz Joseph would be:

1) Archduchess Elizabeth (1883-1963). Granddaughter. Daughter of Crown Prince Rudolph (1858-1889).
2) Prince Franz Josef of Windisch-Graetz(1904-1981). Son.
3) Guillaume, Prince of Windisch-Graetz (born 1950). Son.

The second most common inheritance rule for European kingdoms and fiefs would have been agnatic primogeniture, in which the throne can mass only to males descended in the males line. According to that ruler, if a ruler dies without sons, his daughter don't get to inherit and to throne passes to his closest agnatic relative, even if that is a distant cousin. In one case a seventeenth cousin once removed was preferred over a daughter. According to that rule the heirs of Franz Joseph would be:

1) Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902-1962). Grand nephew, son of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) son of Archduke Karl Ludwig (1833-1896), the brother of Emperor Franz Josef.
2) Franz, Duke of Hohenberg (1927-1977) Son.
3) Georg, Duke of Hohenberg (1929-) Brother.

According to the dynastic rules of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine the inheritance cloud only be passed along by an equal marriage with a women of high enough rank. The marriage of Franz Ferdinand was considered to be unequel, and so the heirs of Franz Joseph by the dynastic rules of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine were:

1) Charles I (1887-1922) Emperor of Austria. Grandnephew. Son of Archduke Otto Franz (1965-1906) son of Archduke Karl Ludwig.
2) Crown Prince Otto (1912-2011). Son.
3) Karl Von Habsburg (born 1961) Son.

Another succession rule that has recently become popular in Europe is absolute primogeniture, in which the oldest child of the monarch is the heir whether male or female. That succession rule was adopted by Sweden in 1980, the Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, Belgium in 1991, Denmark in 2009, Luxembourg in 2011, and the United Kingdom and 15 other countries that Elizabeth II is the Queen of in 2015. According to absolute primogeniture the heirs of Franz Joseph would be:

1) Archduchess Gisela Louise Marie (1856-1932) oldest child. Married Prince Leopold of Bavaria (1846-1930). Mother of:
2) Princess Elizabeth Marie of Bavaria (1874-1957) oldest child. Married Otto Ludwig Philipp, Count of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1870-1951). Mother of:
3) Elizabeth of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1897-1975) oldest child. Unmarried. Sister of:
4) Auguste of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1899-1978) oldest sibling. Married 1919 Prince Adalbert of Bavaria (1886-1970). Mother of:
5) Prince Konstantin of Bavaria (1920-1969) older child. Father of:
6) Prince Leopold Rupprecht Ludwig Ferdinand Adalbert Friedrich Maria et omnes santi of Bavaria (born 1943). Older child.

Another possible succession law would be female preference primogeniture, which would be the opposite of male preference primogeniture. The throne would ideally pass from mother to daughter but if a woman didn't have a daughter the throne would pass to her son in preference to more distant relatives. The heirs by hypothetical female preference primogeniture would be:

1) Archduchess Gisela Louise Marie (1856-1932) oldest daughter. Married Prince Leopold of Bavaria (1846-1930). Mother of:
2) Princess Elizabeth Marie of Bavaria (1874-1957) oldest daughter.. Married Otto Ludwig Philipp, Count of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1870-1951). Mother of:
3) Elizabeth of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1897-1975) oldest daughter.. Unmarried. Sister of:
4) Auguste of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1899-1978) oldest sister. Married 1919 Prince Adalbert of Bavaria (1886-1970). Mother of:
5) Prince Konstantin of Bavaria (1920-1969) older child, no sisters. Father of:
6) Prince Leopold Rupprecht Ludwig Ferdinand Adalbert Friedrich Maria et omnes scanti of Bavaria (born 1943). Older child, no sisters.

Another hypothetical succession rule would be female only primogeniture, where the throne could only pass through females and to females. The succession would be:

1) Archduchess Gisela Louise Marie (1856-1932) oldest daughter. Married Prince Leopold of Bavaria (1846-1930). Mother of:
2) Princess Elizabeth Marie of Bavaria (1874-1957) oldest daughter.. Married Otto Ludwig Philipp, Count of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1870-1951). Mother of:
3) Elizabeth of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1897-1975) oldest daughter.. Unmarried. Sister of:
4) Auguste of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1899-1978) oldest sister. Married 1919 Prince Adalbert of Bavaria (1886-1970). No aughters. Aunt of:
5) Anna Maria von Riedmann (1934-1985) daughter of Countess Valerie of Seefreid auf Buttenheim (1901-1972) and her second husband Wilhelm Otto von Riedemann (1903-1940) Oldest niece. Childless. Sister of:
6) Maria Pia von Riedmann (b. 1938) Sister. Descendants of Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth of Austria (gen 1-3)
 

Maki

Ad Honorem
Jan 2017
3,970
Republika Srpska
2) Vukan, oldest son, but his father chose the younger brother Stefan as his heir. Vukan could claim to be the rightful ruler of Serbia.
3) Dimitar Nemanjic - also known as Saint David Nemanjic. Son.
4) Vratislav. Son.
5) Vratko Namanjic (fl. 1325-1355) Son.
6) Milicia Nemanjic (c.1335-1405) Daughter. Married Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic (c. 1329-1389) ruler of Moravian Serbia and national hero.
We are not really 100% sure that Milica was a descendant of Vukan, there are many problems with the genealogies when you start analyzing them in detail.